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DELE / SIELE oral & writing: HOW to learn, and WHAT

The DELE / SIELE exams are very different to traditional school or college exams. The examen DELE / SIELE tests your ability to express yourself in Spanish, coherently, fluently, correctly and with sufficient linguistic scope (i.e., vocabulary / lexis), simulating real-world situations. The DELE  and SIELE are NOT examinations of your abstract knowledge of the “rules” of Spanish grammar or orthography. They test whether you can actually apply your knowledge and maintain proper communication in Spanish. The first questions when one starts prepping for the oral and written expression tests, need therefore be – for the DELE / SIELE  oral & writing: HOW to learn and WHAT to focus on, so that I can acquire the communicative competencies that the DELE / SIELE require. Even if you are not interested in actually sitting exams, but want to know how to attain fluent, coherent conversational ability in Spanish, then the same issues of How to learn and What to focus on, will apply.

These are very fundamental questions, and therefore are very broad in scope. They cannot flippantly be answered in a few bullet points – to really be of help, this blog-post must first provide you with a proper understanding of how humans acquire language and the communication skills associated therewith. In other words, give a conceptual reference framework for understanding why certain things work, and others don’t, when you are trying to gain communicative competency in a new language. This blog-post will, therefore, focus broadly on explaining the language acquisition processes occurring deep inside the brain, as based on significant new research published in early 2018. Rather than simply listing “exam acing tips”, we will today step back a bit, so that we can distinguish the forest from the detail of the individual trees. We need to comprehend what fundamentally is going on inside our heads when we acquire language – so that, with such understanding, we will be better able to focus and adapt our own language learning efforts. So please bear with me through the explanations – I can promise you it will be worth-while in helping you comprehend what you need to do to gain conversational ability in real life, and thus to ace the DELE / SIELE – as much (actually, much more) than any blithe infographic of acing tips would achieve.

In an earlier blog-post I wrote: There are many conflicting theories, plus ingrained teaching habits stretching back many generations, regarding how best to achieve proficiency so that you will be able to converse in Spanish. Just about the only thing that we do know for certain, is what DOESN’T work; it has been empirically proven that the traditional school or college-style teaching of a second language fails miserably in producing alumni with the capacity to maintain even a basic conversation at the end of their schooling. Recent figures from the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) show that only 0.5% of alumni achieve that level of competence.  Most students taught the traditional way, give up on learning a second language, and those who do finish, have forgotten practically all they had learnt in just three to four years.

I am very pleased to tell you that, during January 2018, a seminal new study was published that greatly advanced or knowledge of how the human brain enables us to acquire language. We now have the empirical data to resolve the “conflicting theories” I mentioned in the earlier blogpost. This research not only clearly points to what to do, and how, in order to develop your language skills – it also confirms why that which we already knew doesn’t work (namely traditional classroom teaching methods) in fact fail, as proven by the ACTFL survey quoted above.

This significant new study was published online on 29 January 2018, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) under the title: “Child First Language and Adult Second Language Are Both Tied to General-Purpose Learning Systems”. As the title indicates, the two major conclusions of the study are that (a) mother tongue and second language are acquired using the same brain circuits, and (b) these ancient circuits are common to most animals and thus not unique to humans, nor are they uniquely dedicated to language learning. As the senior investigator of the study, Michael T. Ullman (professor of Neuroscience at Georgetown University School of Medicine in Washington, D.C.), said in a statement: “Our conclusion that language is learned in such ancient general-purpose systems contrasts with the long-standing theory that language depends on innately-specified language modules found only in humans.”

The perceived difficulty in acquiring another language as adults, lies not so much in the nature of that particular language, as it does in our human nature.  As Steven Pinker and others have demonstrated (see the earlier blog-post), we learnt our own first language instinctively. In our early youth, we acquire language without formal grammar or teaching, because language is the defining “thing” of our species – it is our foremost unique instinct, like that of a spider is to spin webs.

We are programmed and maximally facilitated to acquire language in early childhood. Our brains are strongly focused on it up to about age six (having satisfied also our other differentiating instinct – that of acquiring the skill for walking upright).   Thereafter, however, the brain’s acquisitive capacity of necessity needs to be increasingly focused on other priorities as well, and our ability to acquire other tongues with ease, seem to us to diminish (at least, in our own perception, because it has now been proven that we engage the exact same parts of the brain to acquire any language, as we did for our mother tongue). HOW we in later life strive to acquire language, also changes fundamentally from what happened instinctively during the toddler phase – from the recognition and internalization of the patterns of our mother tongue through casual observation and then constant practicing to speak, we shift to academically “studying” the new language – as  we would study History or Geography or whatever other academic subject where the goal is to abstractly KNOW (i.e., to able to recall facts and interpret them). This is NOT the way that we would, for example, learn to play the guitar, or to play golf, or to master gymnastics, or whatever other competencies that require not just abstractly knowing about, but which requires us to hone the actual ability to fluently, coherently, and correctly DO – to DELIVER OUTCOMES.

How we opt to learn, and under which circumstances we in later life strive to acquire a new language, represent the biggest changes from how we had acquired our native language. Firstly the conditions and priorities have changed fundamentally – instead of instinctively spending our every waken moment for six years focused almost singularly on acquiring the ability to communicate,  whilst our every human need is being taken care of for us, we now have to multi-task complex lives with many competing demands on our attention span; we have to survive economically, physically and emotionally, and try and accomplish our goal whilst being able to invest only a few hours per week, for a limited time. Imagine if you could study a new language every waken hour, 24/7, without anything else requiring your attention, while being fed, cosseted and cared for… How long would it take you then – since, as an adult, you have many more learning tools available than a toddler (such as reading, access to grammar handbooks, and to all the modern digital audio-visual resources)? Six years? No! Certainly not! So, are you still thinking that babies have you beat at acquiring language?

What is true is that these adult circumstances and opportunities available to us since the advent of the age of formal schooling, have changed the way that we traditionally go about acquiring competency at communicating in the second language. It is no longer done instinctively, through observation and practice.  We shift from practice-based pattern recognition, to academically studying the new language. Like for any memorizing activity, right back to ancient times (such as what plants we can eat and which not) we engage for this memory-building activity the declaratory circuit of the brain – the circuit for data storage.  But – by “studying” the new language in this memory-focused traditional way, we are, unfortunately, concentrating on abstractly knowing its “rules”, rather than on building the competency to apply that knowledge in order to be able to PERFORM – to produce coherent, fluent conversation as OUTCOME.

HOW BEST TO GO ABOUT ACQUIRING A NEW LANGUAGE:  To understand how to go about acquiring the ability to communicate in a second language, we first and foremost have to understand how the human brain functions when it comes to “learning a language” – or, more correctly put – how we develop the ability to communicate.  Understanding this process is certain to help you in cultivating the right mind-set and learning methods for making your conquest of conversational Spanish effective.

It is recognized that the two most important abilities that set us humans apart from other primates and the rest of the animals in general, is our ability to walk upright and our ability to comprehensively communicate.  Both are vital survival skills, and both are heavily brain-driven. The ability to walk comes quicker, because it is a much shorter process. There is proof that babies actually start picking up language whilst in the womb. After birth, the brain’s major developmental focus for the next six years is on honing the ability to communicate.

A fundamental question in understanding how we humans acquire language (whether it be our native tongue, or a foreign language) is: what enables humans to have this unique capacity? Is it that we and we alone have a unique “something” in our brains – a circuit, some special DNA – that all other animals lack? This has been a rather logical assumption, and when DNA research became possible and the so-called “speech gene” (FOXP2) was identified, some had thought that it was the eureka moment – until we realized how widespread this gene is, even extending to birds, allowing them to sing. At the beginning of 2018, the result of seminal neurological research was published which once and for all dispelled the notion that we humans possess some unique “speech” part or circuit of the brain, that no other animals have.

It was clearly demonstrated that, no matter our age, and whether it is for acquiring our mother tongue or a foreign language, we use two very ancient circuits of the brain that pre-date homo sapiens and even primates – circuits that are present in most animals. Although it debunks assumptions of structural uniqueness, this neurological research has some extremely important implications for our understanding of how we humans acquire language (and consequently, how it should be taught). The most important revelation is that there are two general-purpose circuits of the brain that are employed in this effort, namely the declaratory as mentioned before, but also – very importantly – the procedural circuit. These circuits aren’t solely dedicated to acquiring language, either, but are vital in our everyday functioning.

The declaratory circuit is engaged when we consciously learn things that we store in our memory, such as how to count, the words of a song, or Spanish vocabulary. The big break-through has been to see how the procedural circuit “lights up” when acquiring language – the same circuit we use for mastering playing the piano, or to perfect our golf swing, or our tennis back-hand. This PROCEDURAL CIRCUIT enables us to PERFORM TASKS, and hones this ability through practice, practice, practice – like athletes building up “muscle memory” of their required moves. For acquiring language, therefore, we now know that it truly is also a case of “practice makes perfect”. We pick up the patterns of the language and internalize them with the objective of reflexive, spontaneous reproduction – and we do so through practice, practice and more practice, without having to think and consciously configure phrases in terms of “rules” we have tried to memorize through the declaratory circuit.

This revelation about the vital role of the procedural circuit of the brain – of actual repetitive practice – in acquiring language, goes a long way towards explaining the ACTFLA survey results, when we consider that traditional language teaching almost exclusively relies on engaging the declaratory circuit. As toddlers we principally engage the procedural circuit to pick up and practice patterns of language, and pass things like vocabulary and pattern irregularities through to the declaratory circuit to be stored. As teenagers or adults, we traditionally try and “study” a new language the other way around, namely by means of engaging the declaratory circuit to try and memorize the “’rules”, with too little opportunity to practice, practice, practice to perfection. The moral of this story, is that you cannot “study” to speak a language from books alone (that is, if you want to meet the communicative criteria of coherence, fluency, linguistic scope and correctness in spontaneous reproduction) without practice, practice, practice – just as the star pianist cannot hope to perfectly render a piece that he/she can easily read off sheet music, without also putting in the necessary practice, practice, practice.

I am not going to repeat here what I said in the earlier blog-post about the importance of pattern recognition in the acquisition of language. It is a vital human ability, and you may want to read that post again to integrate what was said there, with these new research findings about the importance of the procedural circuit and of viewing language not as an academic subject for abstract study, but as a competency that needs to be actually performed, exactly like playing a musical instrument or a sport. It is only necessary to recall one’s own childhood to know that we developed the ability to communicate verbally without any formal teaching. As toddlers, we certainly didn’t formally study grammar – but from about age three and a half, we could construct phrases grammatically correctly.  Where we did make “mistakes”, it usually was when the supposedly “correct” English form deviated from the general pattern we had correctly discerned – such as when a child says two “oxes” instead of saying two oxen, because the regular pattern for forming the plural in modern English is by adding an “-s” (like in two boxes, or two cows).  Oxen is a relic from the past, which has somehow clung on – unlike the word “kine”, which until a few centuries ago was the correct English plural of cow, but which was jettisoned in favor of cows (with “cows” probably before then regarded as child-speak).

As little kids, we didn’t think of particular verbs as being distinct conjugations of some infinitive form – we simply knew that that was the right word for that particular phrase and context, based on pattern recognition. Our ear told us if another child used a word incorrectly, without us being in any way able to explain why it was “wrong”. We developed our language skills by getting to know words as simply words, plus the familiar patterns of stitching them together in phrases.

How to understand what importance to attach to the study of grammar: It is obvious that the patterns of languages weren’t ever formally designed and ordained by committees of elder cavemen laying down grammar “rules”.  Languages grew spontaneously, constantly undergoing local variations and unstoppable evolution at the hand (or rather, tongue) of the common folk.  The first visible signs of language standardization started emerging with the advent of printing.  The first formal grammar book for any European language was only published in 1492, for Castilian (i.e., modern Spanish). In it, its author, Antonio de Nebrija, laid down as first fundamental rule that: “we must write as we speak and we must speak as we write”. What he insisted upon, therefore, is that researchers and academics should not invent language “rules”, but must observe and record that which actually exists, the patterns of speech with all their irregularities (the concept of grammar “rules” is actually unfortunate, because of the connotation that the word “rules” have of being something authoritatively ordained – with hindsight, it would have been better to speak of grammar as a faithful recording of the commonly used patterns of speech).

Because of the natural eagerness of the human mind to create order by means of identifying patterns, it was inevitable that languages would eventually be formally studied. The study of grammar would come to consist of tabulating the patterns evident in any language, such as those for word modification (known as morphology – for example, the conjugation of words) or the protocols of phrase construction (known as syntax).  It is evident that, by learning and knowing these “rules” or rather patterns, one would be able to predict likely constructs. Now, if we take any sport, knowing the rules of the game isn’t – in and of itself – going to make you a great player.  The latter depends i.a. on one’s ability to APPLY such theoretical knowledge instantly and intuitively in actual game settings. Ditto for the guitar player – knowing the score of a song doesn’t guarantee that he/she will be able to render it perfectly at first attempt. This analogy very much resembles the demands of everyday conversation, which is focused on the speaker’s ability to instantly access his/her theoretical knowledge of grammar and vocabulary (i.e., as memorized via the declaratory brain circuit) and then – most importantly – to reproduce it spontaneously in real-world communication (i.e., the practice-embedded “muscle memory” originating with the procedural circuit of the brain).  We don’t simply “know” language, we need and use it to PERFORM communicative tasks.

Speaking is the performance of a communicative task, and requires guided PRACTICE to perfect

Unfortunately, the traditional school system requires standardized curricula and methodologies. This is the case because, in order for school tuition in real life to be feasible when teaching classrooms full of students, there just isn’t much scope for individualization.  They cannot all practice speaking, all at once. And there are many other subjects to be taught in the school year, in addition to (maybe) a foreign language. Therefore, for the foreign language student there cannot be anything like the constant immersion in his new tongue that the typical toddler is exposed to every woken hour in his native environment for at least the first six years. In school and college, time for studying foreign languages is limited – usually only some four to five hours per week, homework time included, is dedicated to acquiring a second language (thus engaging primarily the declaratory circuit of the brain for memorization, without truly activating the all-important procedural circuit for practicing the ability to perform).  Furthermore, it is logical that schools – which are subject to severe constraints of time and organization, whilst dealing with entire class-groups and not individuals – by the nature of these limitations are focused on imparting theoretical knowledge of rules, and not on the individual coaching and practice, practice, practice required to develop actual communicative ability.

As a consequence, schools and colleges are mostly teaching the theoretical foundations of a foreign language, with a focus on reading and writing (all pupils can practice to read or write at the same time, but certainly all can’t practice to speak at the same time). Quite naturally, therefore, schools are setting written exams to test students’ knowledge of the content which the schools have been teaching. Schools are not structured, nor disposed, to focus primarily on the individualized testing of each student’s ability to engage in an actual conversation, one by one.  Which explains why only 0.5% of US students end up being able to converse in the foreign language they have studied.  It’s like teaching and testing football spectators for their knowledge of the rules, instead of coaching actual, competent football players.

The foregoing is not a condemnation of schools – in many ways the traditional grammar-based approach to foreign language teaching was and is what is practically possible, and no informed teacher is under any illusion that it would, in and of itself, be enough.  Because humans instinctively seek for patterns, formal grammar is clearly a very useful tool that helps identify and present for study, the patterns inherent to any language.  It is thus very important that grammar be learnt (particularly because it provides a short-cut to knowing and identifying the irregularities inherent in any language).  It obviously is a faster way of becoming aware of such patterns and their exceptions, than simply by absorbing them subconsciously, over the course of years of unstructured immersion. But it evidently is not enough to simply know these grammar rules, or even to have academic awareness of the patterns, if one wishes to acquire the capacity to fluently, correctly and coherently engage in actual conversation – to communicate effectively and reflexively.

As I said in the earlier blog-post, another major drawback inherent to the traditional way of teaching, is that it inevitably leaves the student with the impression that language consists of rules and vocabulary – of individual words, which must be strung together in accordance with set rules, such as that of conjugation.  In reality, though, language for the most part consists of “chunks” of words in the form of well-established phrases with agreed meaning. These chunks of words and the customary way in which they are strung together, form an important part of the patterns of a language. As kids, we pick up and become skilled in using these “chunks”, like: I am going to school; I am going in the car; I am not going to grandma’s etc. We comprehend that the basic chunk stays the same, we only have to change some words to suit the need of the moment. This truth was recognized some two decades ago by Michael Lewis, who called for a new, complementary approach to the traditional way of teaching foreign languages, which he called the “lexical approach”.  You may want to refresh your memory about this part of the earlier blog-post as well, because in your preparation for the DELE / SIELE, you will notice the emphasis that examiners are placing on the use of “link phrases” to enhance fluency and coherence – and such “connectors” are prime examples of the word chunks that the lexical approach has been focused on. The lexical approach is not intended to replace traditional learning, but to supplement it; Lewis and his followers see it more as an enhanced mind-set, a better understanding of how we actually acquire language, which would broaden the learning methodologies beyond their traditional focus and strive for an outcome of actual conversational competency.

The WHAT of becoming proficient at conversation: The first thing to get right, is mind-set. Your objective should NOT be “I want to study Spanish” (because that is only aimed at acquiring theoretical knowledge about the language). You should consciously decide that “I want to develop the capacity to converse in Spanish” (which entails not only knowing the theory, but the practiced and honed performance skill, of integrating and applying your knowledge in real-world situations, instantly and spontaneously). What you want to be, is an accomplished football player, not just a coach potato football rules guru.

With your mental objective clearly defined, it is important next to identify the skills and knowledge sets that are essential for you to develop, in order to acquire the ability to converse in Spanish.  These elements then become the “to do” list of your preparation plan. The ultimate phase will be to add to this “what to do” list, the very important “how to do” component.

What, then, is necessary, in order to be able to actually maintain a conversation in a foreign language? You must firstly have the ability to understand what your interlocutor is saying to you, and secondly you must be able to make yourself understood.

For both understanding and being understood, you first of all need a sufficiently ample “linguistic scope”. This means that you do have to know (i.e., that you have learnt, to the point of having committed to memory and thus have fully internalized) the words, expressions and common “word chunks” making up the general use lexis of the language. You need to do so with sufficient width and depth, so that you can easily identify the words and word chunks upon hearing or seeing them, and also instantly reproduce them when needed in your own oral expression. This essential knowledge of words and patterns entails knowing the semantics (or meaning) of words, the phonology (or sound) of the word, plus its orthography (spelling, for recognizing it when reading).

click on image to go to this blogpost about expanding your vocabulary

Your knowledge of Spanish words and word chunks  (lexis) is one of the two theoretical knowledge legs upon which real conversation stands (or falls). The other leg is knowledge of the patterns of the language, so that you can string the word chunks together correctly. But lexis may be more vital to conversation,  because your listener can, as an intelligent native speaker, compensate for your small grammatical errors of syntax or of such things as gender accord, even for wrong verb conjugation – however, what he or she cannot compensate for, is if you completely lack the appropriate words to say what you want, or pronounce them so incomprehensibly that your listener’s eyes simply glaze over. When you are preparing for a modern Spanish exams of actual communicative competency, such as the DELE / SIELE, you will know that the amplitude of your linguistic scope is one of the four equally-weighted scoring criteria that examiners will be applying, when scoring you written and oral expression tasks.

However, these two legs of stored knowledge, although clearly required, are not of themselves enough to allow conversation. In order to converse, we now understand that – like any athlete – you will have to practice these legs to perform spontaneously. In fact, if you are still obliged – when you want to say something in Spanish – to first try and remember the right words, and then to calculatedly apply these grammar rules in order to mentally construct a phrase before you can utter it, you will have a serious problem with fluently maintaining any kind of conversation.

This is the difference between sitting a traditional end-of-school written exam, where you have time to calculate how to apply rules, and real-world conversation, which is an instantaneous give-and-take. Instead of relying on calculated application of rules (which usually signify that you are still thinking in your mother tongue and first have to translate from it) you need to have fully internalized – through practice – the patterns of Spanish speech (as you had done as a kid, with your mother tongue). Having internalized these patterns, it rolls out correctly almost without conscious thought as to how to say something (thus leaving you free to focus completely on the really important thing, namely the substance of what you want to convey). From this, you will understand that being grammatically correct is just one part of the “correctness” criterium applied in the DELE / SIELE exam (other elements of correctness being spelling, pronunciation etc.) which means that grammatical correctness is assessed at one-third value of one quarter of the overall scoring under the four equally-weighted main criteria (the other two main criteria, alongside linguistic scope and correctness, being coherence and fluency).

In real life, conversation breaks down when there is no fluency and coherence – when you have to constantly interrupt your interlocutor because you could not understand something that he/she said, or when you yourself cannot find the right words or correct pronunciation or appropriate syntax to comprehensibly say what you need to say. Once again, if you need to first translate for yourself and do a rules-based calculation of how to say something, then there will be no fluency. You need to have the lexis and patterns of Spanish sufficiently internalized. Especially important to the fluent flow of conversation  is the appropriate use of link phrases in order to fluently join up different thoughts or sentences – and not end up uttering, in staccato style, a disjointed series of unconnected phrases.  You know from conversation in your own language, how important link phrases are – words such as “accordingly”, or “on the other hand” or “as you know” or any of the many such devices that we use to fill blank “think time” between sentences, and to link them together, in place of uttering “uhm” and “aah”. These are some of the most fixed and most used “word chunks” in the lexis of any language, and knowing these patterns are essential to fluency.

To recap – the what of Spanish that we need to internalize in order to be able to maintain conversation, are the patterns and the lexis of the language. The latter is the words and word chunks (including their meaning and pronunciation). The patterns are those of syntax (how words and phrases are strung together to form coherent sentences) and of morphology (how we transform words to signify different meanings). This knowledge of lexis and of patterns we have to commit to  memory (i.e, with the declaratory brain circuit), and then with the procedural brain circuit, through guided practice, hone the ability to reproduce it instantaneously without much conscious thought. Without such well-honed internalization of the lexis and phonology of Spanish and of its morphological and syntactical patterns, you cannot hope to achieve fluency.

The HOW of developing the ability to converse in Spanish: Developing the knowledge and skill sets required to maintain a conversation in Spanish, needs to engage both the declaratory and procedural brain circuits (i.e., learn and practice). Luckily, as adults we have access to certain facilitating and enhancing tools which toddlers don’t have available. Adults can read, can follow TV and live stream radio, can do classes (nowadays, also via Skype, from the comfort of the own home). In fact, it may be a misconception to think that babies have an advantage over adults, when it comes to acquiring a language, given the learning tools that adults can access.  The one true benefit that babies have, is that their brains can focus almost exclusively on mastering verbal communication because of their adult-facilitated environment without a care in the world, whereas adults have a huge array of responsibilities between which they must divide their mental energy.

Internalizing the patterns: The basic manner in which your Spanish will develop, will be by means of assimilating patterns and practicing their spontaneous reproduction. You can check with just about any fluent speaker of Spanish as foreign language – they will tell you that they don’t consciously construct sentences based on grammar rules; they speak Spanish the same way as they speak their native English. They do so intuitively and without conscious mental effort, focused on the substance of their message and not on form. They probably will have to do a double take if you start cross-examining them about the intricacies of the morphology or syntax they had just used – the same as you would, if they do the same to you about your native English (you’ll probably respond that you can’t recall why something needs to be said in that particular way, but that you know for sure that that’s the way it’s said!).

The importance of practice/immersion: To discern patterns, and especially to internalize them in this natural manner, we have to be scanning a vast amount of Spanish. This can only be achieved through immersing yourself in an environment where you regularly hear, see and have to speak Spanish, just as a toddler masters the patterns of his/her mother’s speech.

It is therefore evident that any attempt to acquire a foreign language with an approach based just on classroom + homework time (i.e., just employing the declaratory brain circuit without the addition of guided practice via the procedural circuit), is not going to result in any better performance than the figure of 0.5% of U.S. students reaching conversational ability, as cited in the earlier blog-post.

The relative importance of, and correct view of formal grammar: Again, this is not to suggest that formal grammar should or could be substituted. Grammar as we know it is none other than a handy codification of the enduring patterns of a language, as these have been observed over time by qualified linguists.  Using the fruits of their labors will clearly help you identify and understand the patterns (and their “irregular” exceptions) a lot quicker than you would be able to do with just your own random observation. The key, however, is mental attitude – you have to study grammar as a very valuable tool, which will help you spot and comprehend the patterns far quicker and easier.  Do not study grammar as if it represents the language as such, as if knowing the “rules” of grammar could or should be – in and of itself – the ultimate objective. Please realize that knowledge of grammar is no more than a convenient crutch in the early phase of language acquisition, while you are still hobbling along because of not yet having fully internalized the patterns. Just as you did with your English grammar crutch, you will be discarding it (actually forgetting all about it) as soon as you – figuratively speaking – can walk upright with ease and comfort without it.

How many adult native English speakers do you think ever give a moment’s thought to English grammar in their day-to-day conversations?  When last did you, yourself?

Always remember, too, that the language patterns codified under the title of grammar (essentially being word morphology and sentence syntax), are intellectual constructs developed almost organically over ages by communities of humans.  Since grammar “rules” are intellectual constructs, any intelligent man, woman or child can therefore mentally compensate for most errors they hear in your grammar, without losing track of the meaning you are trying to convey. Studying grammar isn’t the be-all and end-all of “studying the language” (this is particularly important to understand when prepping for exams such as the DELE/SIELE, as illustrated by the fact that grammatical correctness is just one element in the “correctness” criterium, with coherence, fluency and linguistic scope each carrying equal weight to correctness). It isn’t even the most important part of such learning (as evidenced by the ability of others to mentally compensate for your grammar errors, as well as by how quickly this crutch is discarded from your active consciousness, once you’ve reached fluency). Nevertheless, don’t be mistaken – until you are fluent through having fully internalized these patterns of morphology and syntax through constant guided practice, you HAVE TO STUDY YOUR GRAMMAR – but do so selectively, as we will show you during your tuition, and with the right mental attitude, namely that grammar is a valuable “cheat sheet” of essential patterns and irregularities.

The most vital aspect that you have to focus on in your active learning (i.e., when pumping that declaratory brain circuit) isn’t grammar.  It is expanding your Spanish lexis.

Expanding your Spanish Lexis is your top active learning priority: By studying lexis is meant acquiring a suitably ample linguistic scope in Spanish for your particular needs (for example, a missionary doctor is clearly going to require a different lexis to a policeman walking the beat in an immigrant neighborhood; a DELE A2 student will need a lesser lexis than a C2 student to pass). Lexis consists of vocabulary and phonology (i.e., knowing words and their meaning, as well as how to pronounce them) as well as the learning of “word chunks” and common expressions and idioms, plus the “link phrases” (conectores) that are so important to ensuring fluency and coherence in speech. The reasons why lexis is deemed so important to conversational ability, are twofold:

  • As was said earlier, to be able to maintain a conversation, you firstly need to comprehend. If you don’t know the meaning of a word or phrase your interlocutor has used, there is no way you can mentally compensate in order to arrive at a correct understanding of what you’re hearing (apart from asking your interlocutor to repeat and explain). It is therefore axiomatic that, to understand, “you have to have knowledge of words and the world”. This is just another way of underlining the lexical approach, which goes beyond the semantics of any given individual word to include its situational context, which helps give it specific meaning within a particular pattern of use. If you don’t have adequate lexical knowledge (i.e., knowing the situational meaning of words and phrases that you hear), and don’t know enough about phonology to be able to correctly identify which words you are actually hearing, you cannot hope to comprehend much in the course of any given conversation. Neither will you be able to do well in the multiple choice listening and reading comprehension tests that make up 50% of the DELE / SIELE exams.
  • When expressing yourself orally, lexis is also of vital importance. You have to readily know the right word or phrase (to the point of not having to break your flow to search your memory for it), and you have to be able to pronounce those word chunks intelligibly. If you don’t readily have the right words and phrases at your disposal, or you cannot pronounce them sufficiently correctly for your interlocutor to be able to identify them, then – even with the best theoretical knowledge of grammar – there is no way that your conversation can blossom, simply because your interlocutor cannot mentally compensate for words that you don’t have and which he cannot divine.  He will be as lost as you are.

At this point it is important to underline that one should have realistic expectations about the time and effort it will require to reach conversational ability in a foreign language such as Spanish, since far more is involved than just learning grammar rules and lists of vocabulary with the declaratory circuit of your brain (you have to engage the procedural circuit through practice, practice, practice to be able to spontaneously produce the right phrases). The ACTFL has calculated that a student of average aptitude will require 480 hours to reach “advanced low” proficiency (A2/B1 level in the European Common Framework such as the DELE diploma). This translates into doing forty hours per week (8 hours per day) for twelve weeks solid. To achieve “advanced high” level (i.e., not yet “superior”), will require 720 hours for the average student, starting from scratch. For the superior proficiency level that diplomats and the like require, it is generally thought that 1,000 hours of intensive preparation is necessary.  The reason for this many hours, is that these institutions (such as the Foreign Service Institute of the USA) aren’t teaching their students the same way as schools or colleges do;  through experience, they have come to understand the vital importance of practice – therefore, a diplomat doesn’t need 1, 000 hours of book study, but rather that total amount of time for both memorizing and guided practice of actual communication.

What constitutes immersion, in the internet age? Immersion doesn’t only signify visiting a Spanish-speaking country and living there for some time.  You can immerse yourself totally in Spanish-language books, films, talk radio and news. This is more focused and productive than merely living in a Spanish-speaking environment, because you can select appropriate themes and you can have your learning tools at hand, such as for jotting down and looking up new words, and adding these to your flashcard list. This combines the mental awareness of the importance of a lexical mind-set and the practice routines of engaging the procedural brain circuit, with all the other traditional learning tools focused on the declaratory circuit.

There is no doubt that the more time you invest in reading Spanish, the more you will internalize the lexis and patterns of the language, as well as getting to know the Hispanic cultural context – especially if you have given sufficient attention to your grammar as a great tool for helping you to quickly spot and understand those patterns. Reading has the huge benefit of seeing the words, but you need to hear them as well for the sake of phonology (you therefore have to maintain a balance between listening and reading). For this reason, the Spanish telenovela (TV soapy) is a great learning tool, especially those that have subtitles for the hard of hearing, so that you can see and hear the word, and also see its situational context playing out on screen.

In any event, whenever you read, read out loud – this provides good practice to your “articulation tools” to adapt themselves to the Spanish sound system, in the privacy of your own home and thus without any risk to your ego. Better still: tape yourself reading out loud, so that you can pick up your pronunciation errors – you will be surprised how different we all sound in reality, as opposed to how we imagine we sound!

Luckily, such “home immersion” in Spanish is nowadays a free option, thanks to the internet.  You don’t have to go live in a Hispanic country anymore (if you don’t want to, that is).  Check out this DELEhelp blogpost for a host of links to free sites, ranging from streamed talk radio, through the major Hispanic print press to free e-books and telenovelas. One needs to differentiate between active learning (such as working on your flashcard lists of lexis and memorizing them, or doing homework exercises in grammar, in reading comprehension or writing) and passive immersion. The latter can form part of your relaxation, like reading a book in Spanish (if you are a beginner, look for dual text books that have Spanish on one page and the English on the opposite). Every possible minute that you can have Spanish talk radio streaming live, or the TV running telenovelas in the background, is useful – even if you can’t really concentrate on their content, you will pick up phonology as well as words, phrases and patterns. Knowing how kids learn, you shouldn’t underestimate the value of this.

One of the great killers of people’s ambition to master a foreign language, is frustration (next to boredom, especially if they just do grammar exercises!). Frustration can really grow very quickly if grammar mastery is (wrongly) seen as the be-all and end-all of gaining proficiency in Spanish.  You may know, for instance, that every Spanish verb can literally be conjugated into 111 different forms, given the number of different moods and tenses in Spanish. If you get stuck on the idea that you absolutely have to memorize each and all of these 111 possibilities in order to be able to converse, the task will seem so daunting that very few will not become frustrated.

Develop your own style of speaking, that’s natural and comfortable for you: Here’s another tip – each of us, no matter our language, have a particular own style of speaking that we’re comfortable with.  We don’t use all the possible tenses in normal conversation (as some writers may do in penning high literature).  Similarly, when conversing in Spanish, you don’t need to have all 111 conjugation options rolling fluently off your tongue. This is especially true in the beginning, while you are still internalizing the basic patterns of Spanish.

Beginners and intermediate-level students, in order to start speaking with coherence and fluency, may choose to concentrate on mastering the present, the idiomatic future and the perfect tense of the Indicative mood.  If you can conjugate these three tenses well, any interlocutor will be able to understand which time-frame you are referring to.  These three tenses correspond very well to the way you are accustomed to use tenses in English, because both the idiomatic future and the perfect indicative in Spanish are compound tenses, using auxiliary verbs (just like in English, which also use compounds with auxiliary verbs to indicate past and future – auxiliaries like “shall” and “have”).

This way of speaking is in fact becoming more common in Spanish, so you won’t be regarded as weird – in the Americas, for example, the idiomatic future (futuro idiomatico) is already used exclusively, in place of the traditional conjugated future tense.  For the idiomatic future, you only need to learn the present indicative conjugation of one verb, namely “ir” (to go). We must emphasize, though, that this approach works when you yourself are speaking; however, because you cannot control the tenses that your interlocutor may choose to use, you have to have sufficient knowledge of the other tenses to at least be able to recognize them, otherwise you may not comprehend what you are hearing or reading. In any event, it is much easier getting acquainted with something to the point of being able to recognize it when used by others, as opposed to the level of active learning and especially practice that’s needed for the purpose of own speech, which demands full internalization to enable spontaneous, real-time reproduction that’s coherent and fluent.

For proficiency at conversation, you have to practice speaking (and be expertly guided / corrected): The immersion that we referred to above, needs to go beyond you simply absorbing written and spoken Spanish. To acquire the skill and confidence to maintain a conversation, you have to have guided practice in actually speaking. This is often a problem for a home-study student living in an environment where there are few speaking opportunities.  Again, though, the internet comes to the rescue, in the form of Skype and its equivalents. Such online tuition and interaction is actually better than what most classroom tuition situations can offer. In the typical classroom, you are part of a group, dragged down by the lowest common denominator and by methodologies and curricula that of necessity are generalized, without focus on your particular needs – unless you are fortunate enough to have one-on-one tuition, such as at our partner residential school in la Antigua Guatemala, PROBIGUA (click on this link for a 2-minute video).

The great benefit of having your own expert, experienced online tutor (apart from the low cost and the convenience of studying in the comfort of your own home) is that you have someone you can speak to, who will know how to record (i.e., tape), correct and guide you. A relationship of confidence soon develops, so that the natural inhibitions of ego fall away and you can really freely practice to speak. We have already mentioned the vital importance of pronunciation – it is clearly very difficult to perfect this if you don’t have a live human being listening to you and guiding you (no matter what the computer-based interactive packages may claim about their pronunciation verification software).  It is also true that interactive computer packages can tell you if you are answering correctly or incorrectly, in relation to simple things like vocabulary, but can they explain to you? Obviously not. The need for expert assessment and guidance in language practice is no different to the same need for the golfer we mentioned, practicing his swing (for both, it is the procedural circuit of the brain that’s engaged). If an amateur golfer (“hacker”) like myself should try and practice my swing on my own, I will just re-enforce my bad habits. I need a pro to video-record me, show me where I go wrong, and guide me to correct it, to make my hours of practice worth-while – the exact same applies to language practice.

Getting over the barriers constituted by the own ego / the “fear of failure”: A last tip with regard to speaking practice, concerns the barrier in the adult psyche constituted by our natural fear of making a fool of ourselves in front of others.  This is perfectly normal, and its inhibiting power is great. There are three distinct ways of overcoming this barrier.  The first is to build a relationship of comfort with a trusted tutor, as I mentioned earlier. Another is to get objective proof of your communicative proficiency in the form of certification, such as the gold standard DELE / SIELE diploma of the Spanish education ministry, or the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) in the USA. This knowledge that you’ve proven that: “yes, I can!” will boost your self-confidence no end.

A third option (which can be integrated with the first) is to create a situation where you, John Smith, aren’t making the mistakes – “somebody else” is, so it’s no skin off your nose. This approach, which is called suggestopedia, was originally developed in the 1970’s by a Bulgarian psychotherapist by the name of Georgi Lozanov. What it entails, is that John Smith will, for example, arrive at the diplomatic academy, where he will immediately be given a new identity related to his target language – he will become Pedro Gonzalez, a journalist from Mexico City with a passion for football and politics, and an entire back story that John Smith has created for his Pedro identity. All his fellow students and tutors will know John Smith as Pedro, and interact with him as such. This has the benefit of taking John’s ego out of play, plus the benefit of freeing him up to adopt a Latino persona, so that he can escape from his unilingual Anglo cultural and phonological straightjacket and learn to articulate (and gesticulate) like a true Latino.

Suggestopedia isn’t the answer to all the methodological challenges of learning a foreign language – it is simply another tool, to be used in conjunction with others. I have seen its effectiveness during my days as head of South Africa’s diplomatic academy (before I became ambassador for the New South Africa of President Mandela). I’ve also seen it here at DELEhelp – one remarkable fellow really got into the swing of things, designing for himself an identity as a Mexican footballer (soccer player). Every time, sitting himself down in front of the Skype camera, you could see him with his enormous sombrero on his head, dressed in his Mexican club soccer shirt and with a glass of tequila in his hand. It wasn’t difficult for him to really get into his new character, which completely freed him of his uni-lingual Anglo straight-jacket and assisted him enormously in mastering the articulation of Spanish phonology in no time.  If you think it can work for you, give it a try!

Like any endeavor in life, learning a new language requires more than just guts and determination (although a lot of that, as well!). It requires that you understand the challenges, and the science behind what works and what doesn’t. I hope that this rather long blog-post has helped you acquire such understanding. We here at Excellentia Didactica / DELEhelp would be more  than pleased to help you with engaging the procedural circuit of your brain through guided practice, so that you can master the performance art that conversing fluently and coherently in Spanish truly is.

REMEMBER TO ASK FOR OUR FREE 96-page DELE / SIELE EXAM ORIENTION AND ACING TIPS WORKBOOK.

Buena suerte with your learning of the beautiful Spanish language

Salu2

Willem

(Click on IMAGE to ask for the free e-book)

 




Sephardi Jews, Spain’s return law and the DELE A2 language test

Sephardic Jews Spain right of return DELE A2 language test

Sephardic Jews Spain right of return DELE A2 language test

In 2015 Spain promulgated a law allowing the descendants of the Sephardim who were expelled more than 500 years ago from Iberia (which in Hebrew, is called Sepharad), to apply for citizenship. Applications had to be submitted by the end of September 2019 (with a further year to do  the DELE A2 and CCSE exams – click here for more detail). It is subject to a basic Spanish language test (the DELE A2), as well as a civics-style test of knowledge of Spanish culture and the constitution (the CCSE). The language test is prescribed for Sephardic applicants under the age of 70, from countries where Spanish is not the official language. So, what does the DELE A2 exam entail?

In this blog-post we will explain the nature of the DELE exam, what level of ability i.t.o. comprehension and expression is required in A2, the scoring criteria that the examiners apply, what grammar and functional language use elements are prescribed in the A2 curriculum, where and when to take the DELE A2 exam, its format, and how best to prepare for success.

NATURE OF THE DELE SYSTEM: The first thing to know about the DELE (which stands for “Diploma de Español como Lengua Extranjera – diploma of Spanish as foreign language”) is that it is NOT a typical school or college language exam focused on theoretical knowledge, such as of the rules of grammar. The DELE is a very practical test of your ability to apply your knowledge of the Spanish language in a real-world context – i.e., of the ability to actually communicate in Spanish in everyday circumstances. It tests four communicative competencies, with equal weight: listening comprehension, reading comprehension, expression in writing and oral expression.

The DELE is managed by the Instituto Cervantes, the Spanish state-funded cultural institute that is similar to the British Council, the Alliance française of France, and the Goethe-Institut of Germany. The DELE diplomas are issued in the name of the minister of education, culture and sport of Spain. They conform to the standards of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (the CEF). There are three main levels – Level A for beginners, Level B for intermediate, and Level C for advanced. Each main level is divided in two (i.e., A1 & A2, B1 & B2, and C1 & C2), making for six levels in all. Level A2 is thus the second beginner level, also called “waystage”.

DEFINITION OF THE STANDARD – This is the official CEF definition of the level of communicative competency that DELE A2 represents: “Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment). Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.

To clarify this standard further, the CEF provides a self-assessment tool for each of the communicative competencies at Level A2. It is self-explanatory and reads as follows:

Listening comprehensionI can understand phrases and the highest frequency vocabulary related to areas of most immediate personal relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local area, employment). I can catch the main point in short, clear, simple messages and announcements.

Reading comprehensionI can read very short, simple texts. I can find specific, predictable information in simple everyday material such as advertisements, prospectuses, menus and timetables and I can understand short simple personal letters.

Spoken interaction and productionI can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar topics and activities. I can handle very short social exchanges, even though I can’t usually understand enough to keep the conversation going myself. I can use a series of phrases and sentences to describe in simple terms my family and other people, living conditions, my educational background and my present or most recent job.

WritingI can write short, simple notes and messages relating to matters in areas of immediate need. I can write a very simple personal letter, for example thanking someone for something.

The SCORING CRITERIA used in the DELE exam further illustrate the practical nature of the testing, which aims to directly test ability to actually communicate – thus indirectly what you know about theory. There are four equally-weighted criteria used in assessing the written and oral expression tests (the comprehension tests are of the multiple-choice type). The four criteria are:

  1. Coherence, meaning how well the candidate can convey meaning, whether orally or in writing.
  2. Fluency of speech, which assesses ability to keep a conversation flowing by means of, for  example, the appropriate use of link words to string together phrases, thereby avoiding fragmented, staccato utterances (in the case of the written expression tasks, fluency is substituted with testing conformity to the genre, i.e., the appropriate format, level of formality, etc.)
  3. Correctness, which assesses how well words are pronounced (or spelled, in the case of writing) and how correct the candidate expresses him/herself in terms of grammar – regarding grammar correctness, it is important to note that every small error isn’t penalised, unless it detracts from correct understanding of the meaning the candidate wishes to communicate, or is so repetitive that it shows a lack of basic knowledge.
  4. Linguistic scope, which considers the adequacy of the candidate’s vocabulary for the tasks required at Level A2.

From the above, you will note that grammar correctness forms a very limited part of the DELE exam -which means that exam preparation should not be primarily focused on it, school style; practicing actually speaking, writing and comprehending would be much more essential, though grammar should not be neglected either.

There’s an excellent e-book of DELE A2 model exams that one can buy for €9-90 and download, via this LINK.

Talking about SPANISH GRAMMAR, the DELE A2 curriculum requires that the candidate should have knowledge of the following Spanish verbal moods and tenses:

Of the four moods in Spanish, only the Indicative (used to objectively describe concrete actions) and the Imperative (used to give orders). The Subjunctive and the Conditional moods are thus not required at this level.

Of the tenses of the Indicative Mood, knowledge of the following is required:

  • Present;
  • Preterit (i.e., simple past tense – example: I ate);
  • Imperfect Preterit (i.e., continuous past tense – example: I have been eating);
  • Perfect (i.e., compound past tense – example: I have eaten).

FUNCTIONAL LANGUAGE USES TO BE MASTERED – being a very practical exam focused on everyday functional language use, the DELE A2 curriculum emphasizes and details the communicative tasks that a candidate must be able to perform. These can be summarized as follows:

1. GIVE AND ASK FOR INFORMATION:

  • Identification – identify yourself (I am), things (this/that/my…), others & other things (by name and he/she/the), my preferences & those of others.
  • Ask for information about – persons, things, class or type, places, nationality, activity, quantity, time, finality (by when must…?), reason / cause, method / manner (how do I…), alternatives (tea or coffee?), expressions of curiosity (why did you go there?).
  • Give information about – yourself (personal data), things, places, time, frequency, finality, reason/cause, correcting wrong information, responding in the affirmative / negative i.r.o. information postulated.
  • Ask for confirmation – you are Julian?, is it true that…?, isn’t the number…?
  • Confirm / deny information postulated – yes, I’m Julian, no it isn’t true that…, yes, I’m British.
  1. EXPRESS OPINIONS, ATTITUDES & KNOWLEDGE
    • Ask and give an opinion
    • Ask and give a value statement (are you well? / I am well)
    • Express approval or disapproval
    • Position self for or against something
    • Ask if in agreement / invite agreement / express agreement or disagreement
    • Express scepticism / present counter-argument
    • Express certainty and evidence / express doubt about certainty and evidence
    • Express possibility
    • Express presence or absence of obligation and necessity
    • Express or ask about knowledge / state you have no knowledge about something
    • Ask about or express ability to do something
    • Express or ask about recalling something / state that you don’t recall
  1. EXPRESS TASTES, DESIRES & SENTIMENTS
    • Express or ask about interest in / taste for something or express aversion
    • Ask about or express preferences
    • Ask about or express desires
    • Ask about or express plans and intentions
    • Ask how someone is doing / feeling
    • Express sentiments – un/happiness, satisfaction, sorrow, pleasure, boredom, anger and indignation, anxiety, fear, preoccupation, nervousness, relief, surprise, admiration and pride, affection, physical sensations (hunger, thirst, pain, feeling unwell)
  1. INFLUENCE YOUR INTERLOCUTOR
    • Give an order or instruction
    • Ask a favour
    • Ask for something (object)
    • Ask for help
    • Respond to an order, request or wish
    • Ask for, give or deny permission
    • Propose or suggest some course of action
    • Offer or invite
    • Ask for confirmation of an offer, accept an offer, reject an offer or proposal
    • Advise or warn
    • Offer to do something
  1. RELATE SOCIALLY
    • Greet and respond to a greeting
    • Approach / engage someone
    • Present yourself to someone
    • Respond to someone presenting him/herself to you
    • Welcome someone and respond to a welcome
    • Excuse yourself and respond to someone asking to be excused
    • Thank someone and respond to thanks
    • Offer sympathy (lo siento)
    • Propose a toast
    • Congratulate
    • Wish someone well / respond to congratulations and well-wishing
    • Take your leave from company

  1. STRUCTURE A CONVERSATION
    • Establish communication or react to communication being established
    • Greet and respond to a greeting
    • Ask for someone or respond to such query
    • Ask for an address / phone number or respond when asked
    • Ask to leave a message
    • Ask interlocutor to commence conversation (as on phone) or react to its initiation
    • Introduce a theme / subject or react to it being introduced
    • Indicate interest in a subject
    • Organize the subject matter
    • Interrupt someone politely
    • Ask someone politely to keep quiet
    • Conclude a subject
    • Politely propose closure of a conversation

(Keep in mind that, although these generic headings of communicative functions may appear overwhelmingly broad at first glance, the DELE A2 curriculum inventory provides much more limiting detail about exactly what is expected at A2 level under each heading – your tutor will work through this detail with you, to ensure that you can perform each function as required).

THE DELE EXAM – WHERE & WHEN TAKEN: The DELE exam is taken at accredited exam centres around the world, on fixed dates – usually five or six times per year, in February, April, May, July, October and end November.

An important point to note, is that not all accredited DELE exam centres offer the DELE A2 at every scheduled sitting. You thus have to make doubly sure with the exam centre of your preference, that they are actually going to be able to offer, guaranteed, the DELE A2 exam on your chosen date (the oral exam requires two certified DELE A2 examiners to be present; if the centre doesn’t have sufficient local examiners, the Instituto Cervantes has to fly out examiners, which they only do if a certain quota is met at the particular centre).

As you can see, candidates typically must register more than a month in advance, and the results are only available three months after the exam date. For candidates wanting to apply for the “right of return” accorded to the Sefardíes, time is therefore running out, given the end September 2018 cut-off date for applications to be submitted. It should also be noted that the new online version of the DELE exam, the SIELE (which was introduced only after the 2015 law was passed) evidently isn’t mentioned in the law as an acceptable alternative to the DELE for purposes of the “right to return” – even though it is also administered by the Instituto Cervantes and has the exact same standards and curriculum. (We here at DELEhelp are trying to get the SIELE formally included, because it can be taken all year-round with 48-hour registration and its results are available within just three weeks, but time may be too short to really accomplish anything with the bureaucracy).

So, if you want to do the DELE A2 for “right of return” purposes, you have to start preparing NOW.

FORMAT OF THE DELE A2 EXAM – the exam consists of four tests (“pruebas”) corresponding to the four communicative competencies. The three written parts are taken sequentially on the exam date; the oral test is individually scheduled, for either the day before, or on the day of the written exam (after completion of those tests). The DELE A2 exam format was streamlined and improved at the end of 2019, taking effect in February 2020 (the descriptions below have been updated as per the new format, about which you can read more detail in this DELEhelp blog post – click on the IMAGE to go to the post):

The new DELE A2 exam explained – click on IMAGE to go to post

The first written test is Reading Comprehension, lasting 60 minutes and comprising 4 tasks with a total of 25 items. The Listening Comprehension test lasts 40 minutes, also with four tasks and 25 items. These comprehension tests are taken in the form of multiple choice papers marked by computer.

The Expression in Writing test lasts 45 minutes and consists of two tasks, written long-hand on paper. These are marked by qualified examiners in Spain.

DELE exam oral sin't Spanish InquisitionThe Oral Expression test is preceded by 12 minutes preparation time, and then lasts a further 12 minutes. It involves four tasks. The first is a prepared presentation on a given theme, the second consists of describing what is seen on a photograph, and the third is a dialogue with the interviewer in a simulated situation derived from the photograph in the second task. The oral is examined on the spot at the exam centre, by two certified A2-level DELE oral examiners. One is the interviewer, who does a holistic assessment. The other does a more detailed analytical assessment and usually sits behind the candidate.

Via this link you can listen to a recording of the oral test of a candidate who failed: https://examenes.cervantes.es/sites/default/files/09_a2_101120_eio_muestra_banda1.mp3

This is a link to a recording of a candidate who passed the DELE A2 oral test: https://examenes.cervantes.es/sites/default/files/09_A1_110520_EIO_muestra_banda2.mp3

 

HOW TO PREPARE FOR THE DELE EXAM:For DELE exam get a study plan

Students do not all have the same aptitude for learning languages, have different learning preferences, and don’t have the same amount of time available.  It is therefore essential that a proper diagnostic be done of each individual, and a personalized study plan be developed based on that.

Most of the potential applicants for the “right of return” will find themselves in work and family situations that won’t easily permit dropping everything and going off to a residential language school for an extended period. This is where modern technology comes in – with Skype, students can learn from the comfort and convenience of their own homes, one-on-one with a dedicated tutor, with a flexible schedule fitted around their realities. There’s no cost of flying off to attend school, nor accommodation costs and no opportunity cost in the form of lost income either. Furthermore, with Skype it is possible to search for tutors based in countries with a low cost of living, such as Central America, and avoid paying high tuition fees in Euros.

One thing that is definitely NOT ideal, is ending up in group classes (typically 6 or 8 students in European schools) where everything is reduced to the rhythm of the lowest common denominator.

The foregoing doesn’t mean that immersion in the last weeks before the exam date isn’t valuable. Such intensive exposure at a suitable residential school, with homestay with a Hispanic family, can be beneficial as final polishing – if done 1-on-1, with someone who knows what your Skype preparation consisted of and can integrate seamlessly with that. But it will cost a lot. On the other hand, it is quite possible to have the same intensity via Skype, doing an “immersion” the last few weeks with your known tutor, by blocking out sufficient time on your calendar.

If you have an exam centre near your home, and you therefore aren’t in any case obliged to fly off to an exam centre abroad, then Skype immersion makes more sense than residential immersion. The latter is normally over-cooked, because too many hours are fitted into to few days (since one cannot be away from home/work too long). Skype immersion ensures big savings in cost and time. It is clearly not an optimal learning situation to sit through seven or eight hours of classes a day at a residential school (as one would do, to justify the cost of the trip and accommodation). With Skype immersion, proper rest breaks can be planned in-between, without leaving a sense of a wasted investment in travel and opportunity costs.

La Antigua Guatemala (where we are based) is recognized as one of the world’s leading centres for the teaching of Spanish as foreign language. Guatemala offers unbeatably low prices in a beautiful historic setting. We have a large DELE exam centre where you can be guaranteed that the A2 will be offered on each scheduled exam date. So, if you do need to travel (because of not having an exam centre near your home) you may want to consider our partner residential facility here for such immersion, where you can be sure that your immersion will integrate seamlessly with your DELEhelp Skype tuition, and you will probably have your DELEhelp Skype tutor as your immersion tutor. Their website’s url is: www.probigua.com

Click on the image below to be taken to a short video recommending PROBIGUA:

www.probigua.com

LINKS TO OTHER BLOGPOSTS AND FREE RESOURCES – for more information about how to prepare for different elements of the DELE exams, you can have a look at some of the other posts on this blog. The blogpost here-below provides links to our top 16 posts, covering topics such as how to ace the oral exam, top tips for the written exam, how to navigate the multiple-choice format of the comprehension tests, top tested answers to DELE exam FAQ’s, and the like (click on this cover image to go to our omnibus post, and then click on the covers of the individual posts you want to read):

OFFER: FREE EXAM PREP HANDBOOK & FREE EXPLORATORY SKYPE SESSION

At DELEhelp we offer our 96-page e-book “DELE Exam Orientation & Acing Tips” free and without obligation – just ask for it via our contact information form (click on the image below, to be taken to the form). We also offer a free, one-hour exploratory Skype session, which you can request via the same contact information form.

It would be an honour and a privilege for us to help more descendants of the Sefardíes to successfully claim their right of return to the land of their ancestors.

Saludos cordiales

Willem Steenkamp

Sephardic Jews Spain right of return DELE A2 language test




The SIELE EXAM is FAST, FLEXIBLE and FAIL-PROOF

The SIELE EXAM is FAST, FLEXIBLE and FAIL-PROOF

In our last blogpost, we compared the SIELE and DELE exams of Spanish language competency. We showed you that – as far as status and content goes – they are twins, sharing the Instituto Cervantes as parent. They have the same curriculum and scoring criteria. The essential difference is in form; the SIELE is the new online version, with all the flexibility and fast turn-around that modern technology makes possible.  As director of studies of DELEhelp and PROBIGUA (the latter our residential arm here in La Antigua Guatemala, which is an accredited SIELE exam center) I am also the official coordinator of the Antigua exam center. Here are some of my observations about how the new SIELE is performing in real life. Summed up: the SIELE exam is fast, flexible and fail-proof.

Our award-winning partner residential school in La Antigua Guatemala, PROBIGUA

FAST: How quickly can you get your results for the new online SIELE exam? SIELE’s promise is within three weeks max. However, we had a candidate do the S3 module (Listening Comprehension + Oral Expression) on a Saturday, and her results were ready on Tuesday! What is noteworthy, is that this particular exam module that she did, included oral – meaning that it wasn’t simply multiple-choice questions marked by computer, but that it needed to be listened to and assessed, in person, by qualified examiners. This turn-around is light years ahead of the DELE’s waiting time of two to three months, plus months more to receive your actual diploma via snail-mail.

Another time-related issue that sets the SIELE apart from its twin, the examen DELE, is that our candidates could register online and receive confirmed times and dates for sitting their SIELE exams, just 48 hours before the exam dates chosen. Instead of the DELE’s limitation to half a dozen fixed dates per year, the SIELE can be taken on practically any date of your choice, and at very short notice, if need be. Very importantly, your SIELE date is immediately and definitively confirmed. In the case of the DELE, on the other hand, candidates need to wait for confirmation at the end of the registration period, which often then results in disappointment (i.e., registration refused) if the particular exam center couldn’t meet the requirements for having oral examiners in place for the candidate’s chosen level, on the set date.

FAIL-PROOF: Are you worried that, since for the DELE you MUST select a particular exam level to attempt, you may aim too high and then fail? Perhaps because of failing just one particular exam unit? This risk is inherent in the DELE, because it is a single-level exam – meaning that it isn’t your general communicative competency in Spanish that is certified, but whether you meet all of the thresholds for the particular level you enrolled for (resulting rather bluntly in either an “apto” or “no apto”, meaning a pass or a fail).

The SIELE overcomes the dilemma of what level to aim for, because it is a multi-level exam. This means that your result for each exam segment is stated as a number (out of 250) which is then translated into your level of competency – for instance, if you score between 125 and 175 out of 250 in the Oral Expression segment, that translates into a B1 grading.  You will get such an indvidualized grading of your level for each of the four communicative competencies – you could, for example, be assessed as B1 for Oral Expression, B2 for Reading Comprehension, A2 for Listening Comprehension, and B1 for Expression in Writing. This is a far more satisfying result than simply hearing you’ve utterly failed B2, if that was the DELE level you had enrolled for. (Again – the levels for DELE and SIELE are exactly the same, as are the curricula and the scoring criteria, and both exams are overseen by Spain’s Instituto Cervantes – see the image below, showing the signature of the Instituto’s Academic Director on a set of actual SIELE exam results).

With our students, we have seen in practice the value of the more flexible yet also more exact certification of SIELE, compared to DELE. It is far better to be told that you actually scored 175 for the oral, and thus be certified at B1 (i.e., you got the top B1 score in this) than to be simply told you’ve failed B2, if you had aimed just one point too high by enrolling for the latter (a B2 grading in the oral starts at 176).

What the above means, is that the SIELE exam is virtually fail-proof. It is like a blood test, which realistically shows where you are placed on the spectrum – not whether you pass or fail a certain arbitrary level. I suppose somebody with no competency in Spanish at all, may in theory fail to obtain even an A1 level, but for the normal student the SIELE’s format eliminates the risk of ending up empty-handed if you had aimed a bit too high (which could have serious consequences, if you urgently needed certification for job advancement, university acceptance or some other formal purpose).

IMPORTANT TIP: While YOU may not be at risk of “failing” the SIELE exam, technology isn’t failproof – as anybody who’s been using Skype, or any internet-based service, can testify. It can – and it does – unfortunately happen that, due to circumstances outside of the control of Madrid or your local exam center, the internet connection fails, making taking (or finishing) the exam impossible at that time. This means the particular segment of the exam needs to be re-scheduled, typically for the next day. Therefore, if you are attending an immersion course at a school that’s an accredited exam center (like our PROBIGUA here in La Antigua Guatemala), don’t leave the exam till the very last day – schedule it for two or three days before your departure, so that it can be repeated if technology failure had occurred.

FLEXIBLE: Another great element of flexibility in the SIELE exam, lies in the fact that you can choose which modules you want to do, on which dates. You can, for example, do the SIELE S2 (Reading Comprehension and Expression in Writing) on one day, and the S3 (Listening Comprehension and Oral Expression), on the next day – or next month, or next year – and thus, together, cover all four communicative competencies; the same four that the DELE tests at a single fixed exam session. If you only need to show proof of your level of ability to speak Spanish, then you simply register for the SIELE S4 exam, which consists of just an Oral Expression test. Having myself experienced just how sapping the DELE C2 exam can be, I can imagine that a bit of a break may do wonders for one’s continued intellectual focus. To read more about the SIELE exam, go to their excellent English website, by clicking on this image:

Link to SIELE website English

It is also important to note that the exam centers for SIELE set their own schedules for exam sessions (which you will see advertised on the www.siele.org website). Local exam center coordinators can add to, or change their schedule of sessions for a given day 48-hours ahead. You could, therefore, reach out to your center of choice (if, for example, you have some reason for needing to do the exam after hours) and see if they would schedule a session convenient for you, which you can then select when you register.  I have been most impressed with SIELE’s support service, which runs 24/7 (keeping in mind that there are exam centers around the world). This high level of back-up is provided by the IT giant Telefonica’s educational division, which is the technology partner of the Instituto Cervantes.

One of the further practical benefits of the SIELE exam format over the DELE, is that you will be doing the exam seated in front of a tested and certified high-powered computer dedicated to just your use, with broadband cable connection (i.e., not wifi) and a set of proper ear-covering earphones with microphone.  This is very useful for the Listening Comprehension part of the exam, which in the case of the DELE is often done in large groups seated together in an exam hall and having to listen to the audio being played over a public-address system.  Because the SIELE exam is offered every day of the week (at our center we offer it Mondays through Saturdays) there is also very little likelihood of the crowding that often goes with the DELE’s handful of fixed exam dates.

If you’ve basically lost the skill of writing legibly by hand (or if your fingers are no longer fit for three hours of such torture!) then the fact that the SIELE exam is typed on a keyboard and not written long-hand like the DELE, is another advantage.

Lest you think that I’m putting down the DELE, let me conclude by saying again that these two exams aren’t in competition – they are twins from the same family. To me (being very proud of my own DELE C2 diploma) it is simply great that the Instituto Cervantes has teamed up with excellent partners, to bring serious students of the Spanish language faster, more flexible options. There will always be a place for the examen DELE (please note, for instance, that the C2 can only be done as DELE). But for students who are under pressure to show certification quickly for college admission, work or the like, the SIELE exam is a great alternative. It is also our recommendation to our own students that they do the SIELE as a stepping stone – a very useful independent diagnostic and familiarization – on their way to eventual top-level DELE success. If you do the demo SIELE exam via this link:  https://siele.org/web/guest/examen I am sure that you will agree that the SIELE exam is fast, flexible and fail-proof.

click on image to ask for free workbook

If you want to know more about the DELE / SIELE exam curriculum and scoring criteria, you may find our FREE 96-page in-house workbook #9 called Exam Orientation and Acing Tips very useful. To receive a download link for this e-book, absolutely free and with no obligation, simply click on the image above to open our contact information form, and send that to me, so that I may then e-mail the link to you.

We also offer a free, one-hour exploratory Skype session, through which you could find out if our exam prep services could be of value to you.

I look forward to hearing from you.

Salu2

Willem

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How do the SIELE and the DELE exam compare

The examen DELE and the SIELE are not identical twins, but they share the same parent (the Instituto Cervantes), have the same curriculum, and enjoy the same status. The only true difference between them, is how they operate. The DELE is traditional, being written long-hand with  a pencil on paper, and is limited to a handful of fixed exam dates. The SIELE is hip and cool, very much into the modern ways of the world – so, it is done ONLINE.

The new SIELE is flexible – you choose your own exam date, plus which of the modules(s) testing the four communicative competencies you want to do on that day. It is quick – you can register up to 48 hours in advance, and get your results within three weeks (as opposed to many months for the DELE).  The SIELE is risk free –  because it is drawn up as a multi-level exam, you WILL get certified, at your correct level (A1, A2, B1, B2, C1), based on the level of communicative competency you demonstrated. This is because, unlike the DELE, you don’t have to register for a specific level, which means in the SIELE there isn’t the DELE’s risk of failing.

The SIELE enjoys excellent technological back-up, because it has the educational division of telecoms giant TELEFONICA as partner. SIELE therefore boasts a very informative website, also accessible in English. There is a truly comprehensive exam guide available in English, for download. If you click on the icons below, it will link you automatically to the website, or to the exam guide, or to four different short videos explaining how each of the four communicative comptencies are tested in the SIELE.

Link to SIELE website English

Download SIELE exam guide

Short video explaining listening test

Video on Reading Comprehension test

Video on the writing skills test

Link to video explaining oral test

So, how do the Siele and the DELE exam compare? I am the official coordinator of the accredited SIELE exam center in la Antigua Guatemala. On the other hand, I am very proud of my DELE C2 diploma. Furthermore, in real life I actually am the father of non-identical twins. So, I feel like a parent who would not want to negatively compare one to the other.  They are from the same pedigreed stable (with the SIELE boasting a cross-continent range of godparents, in the form of the University of Salamanca, the National Autonomous University of Mexico, and the University of Buenos Aires) and they represent the same gold standard for certifying communicative competency in Spanish. They are both based on the Common European Framework, using the exact same curriculum. Level A2 for SIELE is exactly the same standard as A2 for DELE, and so on for all the levels (except for the top C2, which is only offered as DELE).  The fundamental truth is that the only real difference lies in HOW the exams are taken, not in WHAT they test. The difference in the HOW, is simply that – with the SIELE – the Instituto Cervantes and its partners have stepped into the internet age, with all the convenience and flexibility that modern information technology make possible.

For students who need certification in a hurry, the SIELE overcomes the long registration process of the DELE exam, the wait for a fixed exam date to come around, and then the usual two to three months wait for the results to be known (plus months more before the diploma finally arrives!).  In the case of the SIELE, you can register for the date of your choosing (at our exam center here in la Antigua, for example, we offer slots six days per week). You need do so with only 48 hour notice, and you get your results within three weeks – very often our students get theirs the very next day.

With the SIELE it is also possible to mix and match the competencies you want to have tested on any given day. To illustrate – you can do just the oral expression test (the so-called SIELE S4), or you can do the SIELE Global, which tests all four competencies over three hours of examination. The  SIELE Global is thus similar in scope to the DELE. Between these two ends of the spectrum, lie S1, S2 & S3, which are individual combinations of the four competencies:

In addition to the SIELE Global, there is the option of taking individual competency tests, in different combinations.

So, how do the SIELE and the DELE exam compare when it comes to the type of tuition / exam preparation that we do with candidates? There’s practically no difference, because the curriculum and the scoring criteria are the same. It is, after all, the same four communicative competencies that are being tested, to the same standard. We use the same material, whether you are aiming for DELE or SIELE – just familiarising you towards the end with the differing logistical demands of the distinct examining technologies.  Anyone who is familiar with the typical questions of the DELE, will immediately see that the questions in the SIELE are of the exact same ilk. We therefore use the same DELE model exam books in the preparation for both.

We find that the SIELE is an excellent tool for students who have high end goals, but who are unsure of the DELE level they want to tackle on the way there. Instead of breaking your head about what DELE level to register for, do the SIELE Global instead – you will get an authoritative certification of your current level, without the risk of failing, and it will serve as an excellent diagnostic of your strengths and weaknesses,  which one can then address on the way to the ultimate goal.

Evidently, for students who only need, or only want an authoritative report on their oral interaction competency, the SIELE S4 offers the singular focus and opportunity which the DELE (with  its obligation to always do all four competencies) simply doesn’t. The SIELE’s individual permutations also allow for effectively spreading the exam burden over different days – by doing S2 and S3 on different dates, one can amass certification for all four competencies, but achieved at an easier pace.

In the end, though, obtaining the C2 diploma requires doing the DELE, at that level.  The DELE diploma is issued by the Spanish ministry of education, and is valid life-long, whereas the SIELE Global certificate is issued by the SIELE partners, and has a validity of five years.

In the final analysis, the best course for me to steer with regard to how the SIELE and the DELE exam compare, is not to set them up as if in competition with each other (which they certainly are not) but rather to applaud the flexibility and the expansion of options that the introduction of the SIELE has added to the Cervantes family.

The key to succes for Cervantes with DELE / SIELE lies in now being better able to answer to the clearly varied needs and practical circumstances of each individual in the vast collective of students – students who rightly realize that competency in Spanish is a great asset, and who want to obtain the best, most credible certification possible.

In your opinion, how do the SIELE and the DELE exam compare? Please send us your comments and questions – we look forward to engaging with you.

Whatever format of exam you have in mind – buena suerte with your preparation!

Salu2

Willem

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HOW THE DELE EXAM FINAL MARK IS CALCULATED

How sure do you feel about passing the DELE exam?

Are you stronger in your reading comprehension than in listening to and understanding the many different Spanish accents? Are you more fluent in speaking, than in writing Spanish? Such variation in strengths may result in you passing one element of the DELE exam, but failing in another. If that is the case, will you still make the overall pass grade?

What should you prioritize in your exam prep, to avoid that one element completely trips you up? From this, you can see that the way in which the final mark in the different levels of the DELE exam is calculated, is important to how you should focus your personal study plan, when you relate it to your pre-existing strengths and weaknesses. Here we will explain how the DELE exam marking system works at the different levels.

The calculation of the final DELE exam result for levels A1 to B2 – whether you passed or failed – is different from the system used for the top level of the examen DELE, which is level C. In turn, the system used for  C1 differs from that for the “mastery” level, C2. Nonetheless, all the levels have in common that the DELE diploma certifies practical ability to actually communicate fluently, correctly and coherently in Spanish (and not merely possessing abstract knowledge of Spanish). The four areas of communicative competency that gets tested, and which must therefore be developed in your DELE exam preparation, are reading and listening comprehension, as well as proficiency at expression and interaction, both orally and in writing.

How each of these four different competencies are individually tested and scored in the different exam sections, is explained in earlier posts in this blog series. You can access these detailed discussions by clicking on the relevant cover image immediately  below.  They will explain to you the four scoring criteria used (being coherence, fluency, ample vocabulary and correctness) as  well as the four numerical bands (0 > 3) in which marks are accorded for each of the scoring criteria.

The scoring criteria used in the assessment of your DELE exam ORAL test

Top Tips for Acing the DELE / SIELE & WPT written tasks

What this present blog post will explain, is how your combined results for these different competencies are in the end aggregated, determining whether you passed or failed.

Here is the scheme of aggregation plus the required minima, for DELE levels A1 to B2:

You will see  that the four competencies each carry an equal weight, with each making up 25% of the overall exam mark. However, these four competencies are paired, two-by-two, with a required minimum of 60% for each pair (i.e., 30< out of 50). These two legs, in turn, are NOT aggregated – thus NEVER giving you an overall exam score. The global mark is simply either APTO (pass) or NO APTO (fail). This is because, if you failed any one of the two pairings, you’ve failed the exam – even should you add up your scores for the two legs and come to an aggregate mark above 60%. YOU HAVE TO PASS BOTH LEGS, to pass the exam and get the DELE diploma. This is particularly important for students who MUST pass (like Sephardic or “Sefardi” descendants who must pass the DELE A2 in order to qualify for Spanish nationality).

If you did obtain an APTO in both pairs, then your overall score will be APTO. You will receive a DELE exam results notification that looks something like this:

Scoring the expression tasks

A more complicated part of the overall pass/fail calculation of the oral  expression and of the expression in writing tasks,  is how the scoring system for the expression tasks (in four numerical bands i.e., awarding you either a 0, or a 1, 2 or 3 for each of the four scoring criteria)  relates to the mathematics of the final calculation out of 25 for each of these two exam parts. Unfortunately, there isn’t one constant, simple mathematical formula used.

Let’s start with the four bands: 0 &1 (fail) and 2 (threshold pass) plus 3 (good pass exceeding norm). This must be considered together with the fact that two assessments are always done: a holistic one, and an analytical. When this is applied to the DELE A2 exam as representative example, first to the written expression, it factors into the final calculation in the following manner:

Descripción general Formato de la prueba escrita: La prueba consta de tres tareas: dos de interacción y una de expresión. … Calificación: Se otorga una calificación holística y una calificación analítica a la actuación del candidato en cada una de las tareas. La calificación holística supone un 40 % de la calificación final y la calificación analítica el 60% restante. En la calificación analítica, las tres tareas se ponderan de la siguiente manera: Tarea 1 (17%), Tarea 2 (33%) y Tarea 3 (50%).

In brief, there are three tasks to perform in the writing exam. In the analytical assessment task one counts for 17% of the overall mark for this exam segment, task two for 33% and task 3 for 50%. The holistic assessment score makes up 40% of the overall value and the analytical the other 60%.

One must thus understand that the weight of the holistic and analytical assessment firstly differs, and secondly that the weight of each task then differs for the purpose of the analytical assessment. How it thus works in practice, is that each task is individually scored for each of the four scoring criteria (coherence, aptness of style/formality, linguistic scope and correctness) i.t.o. the 4 numerical bands, both holistically and analytically. Once that is done for all three tasks, and for both forms of assessment, then the percentage proportions as mentioned, are applied mathematically and the final score out of 25 is thus calculated.

For the oral expression tasks it is essentially the same procedure:

Descripción general Formato de la prueba oral: La prueba consta de cuatro tareas: dos de expresión y dos de interacción. Se otorga una única calificación holística a la actuación del candidato en las cuatro tareas y dos calificaciones analíticas: una correspondiente a las tareas monológicas (tareas 1 y 2) y otra a las tareas que integran actividades comunicativas de la lengua de interacción oral (tareas 3 y 4). La calificación holística supone un 40% de la calificación final y la calificación analítica el 60% restante. En la calificación analítica las cuatro tareas se ponderan de la siguiente manera: tareas 1 y 2 (50%), tareas 3 y 4 (50%).

The oral part of the exam consists of four tasks. One holistic assessment is done considering all four tasks together. The analytical assessment is split in two: one for the two monologue-type tasks (#1&2) and another for the two interactive tasks (#3&4). The holistic assessment for  the oral also counts for 40% of the weight, and the analytical for 60% – with the two segments (1&2 / 3&4) weighted equally at 50% each for the analytical. The four scoring criteria for the oral are the same as for the writing, except that fluency substitutes style/formality. The four numerical bands function the same as in the writing. The mathematical process for calculating the final score out of 25, is essentially the same as I described above for the writing.

It is of great importance, i.t.o. adopting an appropriate exam prep study plan as well as for having the right mind-set when going into the actual exam, that you understand how the two exam parts testing your competency at expressing yourself orally and in writing, are scored i.t.o. the four scoring criteria used. This is actually of much more significance than the mere mathematics of calculating the final pass/fail, discussed just now. Please, therefore, click on the banner images of the two blog posts shown above, to go and acquaint yourself with what these scoring criteria are and how they are applied.

click on image to go to a 1-minute video with top bite-size tips for acing the DELE

The system of pass / fail calculation for DELE level C1, with its minima:

The system employed for calculating a pass or fail for DELE C1 still very much resembles that for A1 – B2. It has the four competencies, also grouped in two pairs. The main addition is that the element of integrated dexterity in language use is being emphasized much more than at the lower levels. Instead of just testing reading and listening comprehension, DELE level C1 combines this with testing competency at the use of language. Similarly, oral and written expression is integrated with comprehension (what this means, is that your answers – when you express yourself – need to reflect how well you understood the texts and audio clips upon which the written and oral expression and interaction tasks are based).

The principles for arriving at an overall pass / fail determination remains the same as for A1 – B2, though. You have to obtain 60% per pair, for each of the two pairs.

The threefold scheme used for DELE level C2, with its minima:

The  difference with the lower levels is that, instead of passing two pairs you have to pass each competency tested (for A1 – B2 you could fail one competency, because if your showing in the other competency paired with it was strong enough to give you a pass aggregate for that paired group, you still passed). In the case of the three sections of the C2 exam, you have to pass each one individually. You will notice that there’s also much more focus on integrated dexterities (i.e., application skills). It is still essentially the same four core communicative competencies that gets tested, just configured into three sections in a more synergized, cross-impacting way, resembling the integrated nature of real-world interactive language use.

The DELE exam results are normally made available electronically to candidates, between two and three months after the exam date. Those who have passed, will have to wait another two to three months for their diplomas to reach them. This is what the DELE diploma looks like:

DELE C2 diploma example

This is what the DELE Diploma looks like.

What our students say:

Talking about exam results – at DELEhelp we are fortunate that our regular students always do well in their exams. I’ll quote you what two of these students wrote us. The first underlines the need for a proper study plan and focused tutoring for obtaining success. The second shows how flexible our 1-on-1, personalized Skype tutoring can be, fitting in with a globe-trotting student’s travels across continets and time zones.

KEVIN wrote about how he changed his fortunes from having failed on his own, to passing with us at his next try, getting 100% for his oral:  My family and I vacation frequently in Baja California and I have always found it rather easy to get by speaking very little or no Spanish.  Most locals I encounter in Baja are patient and usually speak a fair amount of English.

However, over the last several years, I have developed a great fondness for Mexico along with its people and culture and this fondness lead me to believe that I have been missing a great deal by remaining in an English-only world.  For this reason, I finally promised myself to learn to speak Spanish.  At the same time, I wanted an objective and concrete way to measure my progress and chose to employ the DELE exams for this purpose.

My first experience with the exam preparation process did not go so well.  After reading a bit about the exam and the various levels I decided I would prepare for a few months and then sit for the A2 exam.  This seemed reasonable to me at the time since, after all, I had some Spanish in elementary school and even practiced a bit as an adult with audio tapes.  I was not a complete beginner!  So, for a few months I studied when I could find the time and practiced online a bit with native speakers.  When exam time came around, I did my best and actually enjoyed the exam experience, but, the test was much different than I had anticipated and it I was clearly far from the mark regarding A2-level Spanish.  The test results confirmed my assessment and I failed pretty miserably on all four test sections.  I felt sorry for myself but quickly realized that I just needed a better learning approach.  I also now knew that success would require this approach to be more disciplined, formal and structured. Fortunately for me, the day of my tragic exam experience I met two other, better prepared, test-takers and they told me about their very positive test prep experience using a plan developed for them by the folks at DELEhelp. I enlisted the DELEhelp team within a week.

After an initial conversation, I was given a series of tests much like the DELE exam.  The results of this test indicated that my current Spanish level was well below A2 and that I should target the A1 level for my next exam.  It was then explained to me, very clearly, what is expected of a person communicating in Spanish at the A1 level.  With this target in mind and my test results in hand we created a study plan to get me to the A1 level in all categories.  In my case I was strongest in reading and writing, so listening and speaking would be emphasized.  Together we chose an exam date and got to work.

My study plan consisted of reading and writing assignments, vocabulary memorization (a necessary evil), Spanish media in various forms that I selected and also live Skype sessions in Spanish.  The Skype sessions were used to review and discuss assignments, test vocabulary and talk about events within the media segments.  Periodic mock tests were provided and the study plan was tuned accordingly.  For instance, halfway through my A1 prep course it became clear that I needed more conversational practice and also that we could afford to lighten the reading and writing load.  This combination of homework and independent study, along with live review in Spanish with a native speaker, worked wonders for me.  I felt quite confident heading into the exam.

When I received my test results I had a bit of a surprise waiting. I had comfortably passed the reading, writing and listening sections of the exam but I was a bit shocked to find that I had received a perfect score on the oral section (25/25).  My smile muscles severely cramped after an hour or so of constant use.

Even more fun for me was a trip that my family and I took to Costa Rica a few weeks after the exam.  I found myself talking to people I had never met before, in Spanish!  I was introducing my family, describing our adventures and asking questions about the food, their families and their country.  They were talking back to me in Spanish and smiling warmly when I mixed up words or made other, sometimes very funny, mistakes.  It is very hard to describe this experience but it was amazing.

I know that I am only at the A1 level but I am very solid at this level.  I also now understand that I can continue as far as I want down this path if I am only willing to follow an effective plan and put in the effort required.  I can be as fluent as I want to be.   It’s hard work but it is not magic and it is well worth every minute.

ALEX from England, who prepped with us whilst exploring the jungles, mountains and beaches of the length and breadth of the Americas and finally wrote her DELE exam in New Zealand, wroteWorking with Willem and Monica was extremely valuable in my preparations for the DELE B2 exam. I was travelling at the time and they were able to be flexible and work with different time zones and my availability. They tailor the content of the lessons to what the particular student is looking for and to the syllabus of the DELE exam. Having gone through multiple mock exams with Monica, I felt more prepared and confident in tackling the format of the exam on the day. They are truly wonderful people and they made the lessons enjoyable as well as effective in improving my Spanish.

An important element in our students’ success has been the use of top DELE exam preparation resources. We have selected the most important ones (mostly free), and made short 1-minute videos of recommendation. You can access these by clicking on the images below.

click on the image above to learn more about ModeloExamenDELE

click on the image above to learn more about practicaespañol.com

click on image to ask for free workbook

If you are interested in DELEhelp, you may want to visit our Facebook page, where we post regular “bite-size” exam acing tips:

https://www.facebook.com/delehelp/ 

Thanks for reading this blog post, and best of luck with your DELE exam preparation

Salu2

Willem

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3 TOP DELE EXAM RESOURCES IN 1-MINUTE VIDEOS

What are your top resources for preparing for the DELE or SIELE exam?  First, you need a comprehensive and detailed exam preparation book – and today we offer you the best (a 96-page e-book, in English). It’s entirely FREE and without any obligation. Secondly, you need realistic model DELE exam papers on which to practice. And thirdly, you need a daily e-mail feed of Spanish comprehension, vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar exercises, graded per DELE level.

We have prepared two 1-minute videos, recommending two top sites. Plus, we offer you our free DELE exam preparation book.  The videos are available on our YouTube channel. To view, simply click on the image:


The first 1-minute video recommends our preferred examen DELE model exam papers to practice on – the ModeloExamenDELE series. To see the video, just click on the image above.

If you have been looking for a free yet authorative resource to help you with your daily prep for the DELE exam, then the second video will point you to a website that has the authority of being linked directly to the heart of the beast itself.

The second video recommends the excellent www.practicaespañol.com website. It’s a joint venture by the Instituto Cervantes (which manages the DELE diploma exams) and the Spanish news agency, EFE. Subscribe, and receive daily e-mails with graded exercises based on the news of the day. To see our 1-minute video recommending this valuable resource, click on the image above.

This is DELEhelp‘s FREE offer of our unique 96-page DELE exam preparation book. Just click on the image below to ask for the download link.

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You can ask for the download link to the free DELEhelp workbook, via our convenient contact information form. There’s no obligation on you – it’s a gift from us, to show you the quality of the specialized, personalized online DELE exam preparation tuition (via Skype) that we offer, at only US$14 per hour.

You may also want to check out our DELEhelp Facebook page. To go to our secure website, just click on the image below.

Buena suerte with you DELE exam preparation!

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DELE EXAM DATES 2020 AND HOW TO REGISTER

https://www.edele.org/contact-us.html

These are the when, where and how of registering for the DELE exam.

There are general DELE exams scheduled five times per year (seven times, when adding the two exams exclusively for level A2, in February and September). On the infographic with dates above, look closely also at the CLOSING DATES for registering for the different exam dates.

PLEASE NOTE that not all of the exam centers offer all of the exams for all of the levels on each of these dates.  Some centers  offer only certain levels, and some skip certain dates completely. It is therefore essential to check with your preferred center whether they actually offer your level on your preferred date.

You can see the list of centers (more than one thousand, in more than 100 countries spread all across the globe, but with the great majority in Europe) by clicking on this link: https://examenes.cervantes.es/es/dele/donde

If you choose an exam center in Spain, you can regisiter on-line.  For the rest of the world, you have to present to the exam center of your choice your original passport plus a photocopy of it, as well as documentary proof of payment of the registration fee (varies per country; check with your exam center).

Watch 2 minute video introducing DELEhelp’s services.

You can download the actual DELE exam registration form here: https://examenes.cervantes.es/sites/default/files/formulario_inscripcion_dele_2017_1.pdf

DELE registration form (partial)

If you have not yet done so by the time you’ve registered, it would be advisable now to get an individualized study plan drawn up, plotting your exam prep up to your chosen exam date.  For how to do it, see our blogpost:  http://www.delehelp.org/plan-dele-exam-preparation/

Of course, we here at DELEhelp would be more than happy to help you with the essential diagnostic of your strengths and weaksnesses upon which such a personalized plan should be based, and then with drafting the plan itself.  We do this essentially free, because our fees are based solely on the actual hours of Skype tuition that you actually take with us (at US$14 per hour). You can also try our free exploratory Skype session of one hour, with no obligation, which will allow you to assess whether we can add value to your exam prep. To set up such a free session, just drop me an e-mail at: ws@edele.org

FREE BONUS OFFERS:

We have two free bonuses for you today. First is our 96-page in-house Workbook #9.2 “DELE exam Orientation and Acing Tips”. Click on the image below to ask for this unique DELE exam preparation book – we will send it to you gratis, with no obligation on your part.

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The second bonus is a one minute DELEhelp video recommendation of probably the best free online resource on the web, which you should make use of to help your improve your Spanish. It consists of daily guided practice, graded according to the DELE levels. The content is based on topical news, with extensive vocabulary lists, audio comprehension and grammar exercises. Check out the one minute video on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NJdzKJiW6d8

Click to go to 1 minute YouTube video

Thanks for reading – for more information on DELEhelp, please go to our website by clicking on the image below:

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COMPARING THE DELE / SIELE & OPI SPANISH TESTS

At DELEhelp we are often asked how the three main Spanish language competency exams, the DELE, the SIELE and the OPI compare, since we are official proctors for the American OPI system, as well as accredited SIELE exam coordinators (and I myself as writer of this post, have a DELE C2 diploma).

THE THREE OPTIONS: The traditional style “pen & paper” DELE exam of the Instituto Cervantes of Spain is long established and thus probably the most widely known Spanish language competency test. However, modern technology now offers two equally valid additional options. Both can be taken online, with much more flexibility and convenience. One is the SIELE (which the Instituto Cervantes launched in 2016 as essentially an online twin for the DELE). The other is  the American OPIc – the Oral Proficiency Interview via computer – of the ACTFL (the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages).

These online exams offer not only a choice of accreditation between Spain and the USA. They also offer relief to those students who need their results quickly (not the three months that the DELE results take), and who want to take their exam any day of the year (i.e., not be limited to one of the five dates that the DELE offers). In particular, the SIELE and the OPIc offer relief to students who do not want, or do not need, simultaneous testing in all four communication formats (listen, read, write, speak) which remains an onerous obligation with the DELE. If you only need, for example,your oral proficiency assessed and certified (or any combination of the four competencies) then the SIELE in its different component forms, or the ACTFL package of competency tests for speaking, writing and reading & listening comprehension would be much more suited for you.

Lastly, both the SIELE and the ACTFL online tests are multi–level exams that peg you at your right level for each competency individually. Unlike the DELE, you don’t have to commit yourself to passing all of these competency tests at one specific level, on one day (for instance, B2). And unlike the DELE, you effectively can’t fail SIELE or the OPI/WPT/LPT/RPT (whereas the DELE you most definitely can fail, if you do not achieve an across the board pass for the four competencies together, in their same-day exam).

THE SIELE EXAM PACKAGE:

The SIELE  and the DELE use the same curriculum and scoring criteria. They both qualify you i.t.o. the same levels (A1, A2, B1, B2, C1) and the certificates for both are signed by the same official – the Director of Studies of the Instituto Cervantes. If you want to do the top C2 level, though, you can still only do that through the DELE. The SIELE has eliminated many of the logistical nightmares associated with the DELE, and introduced newfound flexibility – both regarding the dates when you can sit the SIELE (practically any day of the year, as opposed to five fixed dates for the DELE) and the fact that the SIELE allows you to test for only one competency at a time, if you wish (as opposed to the DELE’s obligation of doing all four in one sitting). You also typically get your SIELE certificate within three days of doing the exam, whereas you have to wait THREE MONTHS for your the DELE results (and another three months for the actual diploma). We have published a detailed blogpost about the SIELE, so I will not repeat all the details here. You can access the post by clicking on this link: https://www.delehelp.org/the-siele-exam-is-fast-flexible-and-fail-proof/

SPAIN OR USA? When you look beyond the Instituto Cervantes of Spain’s DELE / SIELE and you consider the American ACTFL’s options as well, there is one essential question  to ask yourself – especially if you need certification for university study purposes or employment in a public service position: do you intend studying at a North American college or work for a U.S. entity?   If  that is the case, then the ACTFL’s package of OPI/WPT/LPT/RPT may be your more appropriate choice (even though many American academic institutions do also recognize the DELE and increasingly, the new SIELE).

If your personal goal – or your professional / social need – is no more than to be able to converse, then one of the best general certifications (for Americans especially), is the OPI / OPIc test of the ACTFL.  Keep in mind that, although the ACTFL tests are commonly know as the OPI, they are not limited to assessing oral proficiency only – you can do the WPT, RPT and the LPT (the writing proficiency test, and those for reading and listening proficiency), similar to those offered under the SIELE banner. These three additional proficiency tests are all done individually online, in much the same easy way as the OPIc (the classic OPI is still done by telephone, but has in practice been largely superseded by the OPIc).

Public sector institutions in the USA (many of which are grouped together in the inter-agency round table for languages or ILR, associated with the ACTFL) obviously accord preference to the OPI/OPIc. It stands to reason that most academic institutions in the USA are also familiar with the ACTFL and its testing, for credit purposes. Many private sector institutions in the USA, such as business employers and private schools seeking to appoint teaching staff, require OPI/OPIc certification from applicant employees as well.

This blogpost will essentially describe the OPI and OPIc, plus what we here at DELEhelp can do to assist you in your preparation for the interview, whether it be the online or “by phone” version.

MAIN DIFFEENCES BETWEEN THE DELE / SIELE AND THE ACTFL TESTS

Whereas the DELE tests all four components of communicative competencies as integral, obligatory parts of one exam sitting, on the same day, the ACTFL and the SIELE test these competencies individually: in the case  of the ACTFL, in the form of the OPI / WPT / RPT / LPT stand-alone tests. These can – if one so choose – be taken on different days and it’s possible also to choose to do only one test, and no more: like the OPIc or the SIELE S4, both being just oral proficiency.

For the DELE exam, the candidate must register for one of six progressively more difficult levels, from A1 to C2, and pass all the competencies at that same level/standard in one exam.  Fail one and you fail all. In the case of the OPI and also for the WPT/RPT/LPT, there is no testing level to pre-select on the part of the candidate. Each comptenecy is assessed independently. The generic interview / test format allows for candidates to be assessed and a level of proficiency to be certified for each competency, on the ACTFL scale of ten, ranging from “novice low” through “intermediate mid” to “superior”, or the ILR (Inter-Agency Language Roundtable) scale of 0 to 5, with the latter being equivalent to “functionally native”. It is possible, though, with the ACTFL’s tests to request that your certificates be issued i.t.o. the European 6-level scale (A1/A2, B1/B2 & C1/C2).

The physical exam format is also different: for the DELE, the candidate must present in person at a certified examination center across the globe, pen in hand, on one of five pre-set exam dates during the year. The OPI is an interview conducted by telephone, and the OPIc is an online test by computer (as are the WPT/LPT/RPT), which can be taken at any pre-arranged time of year, taken wherever the candidate finds him/herself (where there is a proctor available).  The OPI/OPIc can usually be scheduled within a few working days. The tests are conducted i.t.o. the ACTFL assessment protocol by Language Testing International (LTI). To request an oral proficiency interview, the candidate needs the co-operation of an institution that can procurate the test (i.e., vouch for the identity of the candidate and oversee adherence to the rules) which may be an accredited school or one’s own employer. Our terrestrial school here in La Antigua Guatemala, PROBIGUA, is such a proctor institution: http://www.probigua.com ).  The certified OPI/OPIc or other ACTFL proficiency test result is normally available within ten working days (the DELE usually takes three months).

THE ORAL PROFICIENCY INTERVIEW

The traditional-style OPI interview (as opposed to the OPIc interview) is conducted live by a qualified tester, by phone; it is recorded and usually further assessed by a second examiner, before a proficiency level is certified. The interview lasts from twenty to forty minutes. The objective is to assess the candidate’s ability to use the language orally in real-life situations. The manner in which the candidate acquired Spanish is not important, nor is there any set coursework or curriculum to cover. The candidate is tested against a standard set of criteria, essentially by means of questions and answers broadly intended to resemble a conversation.  The tester will structure the questions in such a way as to oblige the candidate to use different tenses, such as past and future, and to express hypotheses and wishes – in this way indirectly testing knowledge of grammar and (above all) your ability to apply this knowledge.  The format also makes provision for using role-play at some point, which the tester will introduce and explain in English.

Testers are under strict instructions to avoid contentious topics such as politics and religion. A manual for OPI testers explains how topics should be selected:

  • Warm-up topics should focus on autobiographical information, educational background, work or profession, interests, hobbies, etc.
  • The tester’s role is to develop topics that are of interest to the candidate so that the candidate is engaged in the discussion naturally and spontaneously.
  • Topics to pursue (if previously mentioned by the candidate) include:

Education, work experiences, future career ambitions, consumerism, customer service, sports, exercise, the workplace in the 21st Century, innovations, urban, suburban, rural communities and lifestyles, transportation, traffic, ecology, the environment, industry (financial, service, manufacturing), classical culture, art, music, popular culture, TV, movies, fashion, technology, computers, hobbies, special interests, food, diet, entertainment, pets, automobiles, tourism, travel, science, medicine, history, etc.

The online OPIc is an advance on the OPI, since it eliminates the human factor in the interviewing, and is therefore even more standardized. The first important thing to note about the OPIc is that all instructions are in English, as opposed to the DELE / SIELE, where all instructions are in Spanish only.

This is obviously a great advantage for English-speaking students, which is further enhanced by the ACTFL’s ample study materials in English for preparing for the OPIc.

You will be interviewed by a friendly avatar called AVA, who will first establish with you the topics that most interest you in life, and then allow you to choose the main themes about which you want to be interviewed. The conversations start out at the level that you yourself had rated your Spanish to be at (done in the biographical segment that introduces the test). It thus allows you to “warm up” with well-know topics that you’ve identified as being of interest to you, regarding sport, recreation, your work, family etc. It then steadily escalates to the main themes you chose, which would for example be:  

The test is similar to climbing a stairway, with the objective being to see at how high a level you can sustain the conversation (the “floor”) and where you find the going impossibly tough (the “ceiling”). Student feed-back has been that the OPIc format is very user-friendly, keeping one at ease and without undue time pressure. The fact  that the instructions are, as mentioned, in English is also a clear advantage for students with working knowledge of English – especially if you are still a relative beginner at Spanish.

From our own practical experience of the DELE / SIELE / OPI exam formats, we can testify to the fact that the OPIc is by far the most technologically advanced and also robust against hiccups. Yet it is also the most simple, intuitive and human-friendly to use.  So, if your accreditation requirements are satisfied by the OPIc, don’t hesitate to go for it.

From observing students, it appears that people actually have fun doing the test.

lti-logo

For more information on the Oral Proficiency Interview by computer OPIc, have a look at this LTI website (it includes a demo exam you can try):
https://www.languagetesting.com/oral-proficiency-interview-by-computer-opic

The ACTFL has 76 OPI sample videos on YouTube, which you can look at via this link:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MWx_y3LsB3w&list=PLh_cfDwS8mrt6d3RFa5QdVnxktSfS8sS0

We have prepared a DELEhelp BLOG POST specifically on the OPIc, with lots of detail and acing tips – you can access it by clicking on the image below:

Top tips for Acing the OPI in Spanish

DELEhelp CAN PREPARE YOU FOR THE ACTFL TESTS like the OPIc

From the above, it is evident that the objectives of the DELE / SIELE and the ACTFL tests are very similar, as are their approach based on “can do” comptency. This being the case, you will understand why our tutors here at DELEhelp would be very able (and happy) to assist your preparation for doing the ACTFL tests – particularly the OPIc, if your aim is purely to demonstrate competency at speaking.  As with the DELE / SIELE oral prep, the key to effective preparation for the OPIc is lots of oral practice (via Skype) with a qualified tutor who can simulate the OPIc interviews and provide you with feed-back and correction. Depending on what level of OPIc certification you would like to achieve, a personalized study plan will be developed to help you with mastering the appropriate lexis (vocabulary and phrases) and grammar necessary to achieve the coherent, fluent speaking required for the standard you are aiming for. Our programs and lesson hours are entirely flexible, and at only US$14 per hour, our rates are unbeatable.

If you want to ask for our free, no-obligation e-book for preparing for the OPI/OPIc, and/or if you would like to do a free exploratory Skype session with me, in English, about what coaching assistance we can offer  you (with no obligation), please use the convenient contact information form that you can access by clicking on the image below:

Buena suerte with your preparation!

Saludos cordiales

Willem Steenkamp
Director of Studies: Excellentia Didactica

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The DELE and FUNCTIONAL LANGUAGE USE

DELE exam functional language use segment is a key part of curriculum

Why is “functional language use” an important curriculum component?

The DELE / SIELE exam curriculum consists of much more than grammar and spelling. The same applies to their American equivalent, the OPI. Because the DELE / SIELE & OPI  test “communicative competency”, they are focused on what you can actually DO, more than on what you abstractly know.   (For the sake if convenience, from this point on I will refer simply to the DELE, instead of each time the DELE / SIELE & OPI).

In this blog post we will examine the DELE’s curriculum component that identify the “functional language uses” prescribed for every level, i.e., A1, B2, C1 etc. This means, which everyday, functional uses of the Spanish language a student needs to master, in order to do well in the DELE exam  (or, plainly put, which typical tasks of real-world communication – the OPI’s “can do” statements). Examples of such “can do” statements would be: can I identify myself to an official? Can I ask for directions? Order a cup of coffee? Introduce a toast at a wedding? (the latter at the upper levels, of course!).

“Functional language use” signifies the everyday communicative tasks that the student must be able to perform well, as assessed in terms of four scoring criteria:  fluency, coherence, correctness and sufficiently ample linguistic scope (i.e., knowledge of vocabulary and expressions).  Some more examples of these functional uses would be tasks such as to ask for information or for a favor. Or it could be to express an opinion or sentiment, such as disagreement or repentance. It includes how to relate socially, such as in the tasks of responding to words of welcome, or extending sympathy. It also includes influencing a situation, such as how to give an order or to deny permission. Another set of functional language uses relate to structuring a conversation – for example, tasks such as how to greet someone and how to respond to a greeting.

DELE curriculum is more than grammar

How important is “functional language use’ in relation to the other curriculum components? Very! Grammar and pronunciation/spelling are but the first components of the DELE curriculum, which has ten in all. The next main component is “functional language use” (i.e., the “can do” statements). Because the DELE exam does not pose college-style questions that test theoretical knowledge, what you should be expecting, is for your ability to perform these functional tasks to be tested instead.  These tasks happen to also be typical of communication in real life, so mastering them not only serves to help one in the exam, but prepares one for the demands of everyday interaction – which is exactly what the DELE system is designed to foster and measure.

What the section on “functional language use” also  does,  is to give a good, practical indication of the SCOPE of matter that must be mastered for each level of the exam. In that sense, it is like a built-in “exam spotting tool” that students so much wish to have.

Now, simply to be practical about this blog post, it should be evident that dealing here in detail with the required functional language use competencies as listed in the DELE curriculum for every single level of the DELE system would be too much ground to try and cover in one blog post. We will, therefore, focus here on Level B, because it sits in the middle of the range and students at other levels can get a good idea of what their level’s requirements would likely be (all three levels follow the same structure and headings in relation to this particular component on functional language use).  In addition, we will provide links at the end of this blog post to this curriculum component for each level, for your convenience.

Our purpose here is not to give you fully developed phrases as examples of the typical manner in which Spanish-speakers accomplish each of these functions. Again, this is because (even if we limit ourselves to level B) that would require the volume of a whole book, not a mere blog post.  The idea here, in this blog post, is to introduce and sensitize you to the TYPE OF FUNCTIONS that the DELE requires you to be able to perform. We will present these in English (because the original curriculum documents are, of course, in high academic Spanish) so as to make them more accessible to especially the lower-level students. The links to the “functional language use” curriculum segment for each of the DELE’s A, B & C levels – which we provide at the end of this blog post – will however lead you to the somewhat wider detail of the original documentation. But not even in the original curriculum itself, will you find full examples of the typical phrases you will need to be able to form and articulate in order to perform these everyday functional tasks – that, your expert 1-on-1 tutor will have to help you with, via Skype.

snappa_1467577824Related to the emphasis on mastering functional language uses in order to communicate competently, is a growing trend towards following a lexical approach as the best way to acquire a new language (“lexis” meaning internalizing “word chunks” or expressions and patterns of language, instead of mostly studying grammar rules – see our blog post: http://www.delehelp.org/learn-to-converse-in-spanish/).

This lexical trend plays into the DELE’s focus on tangible outcomes, not merely on abstract knowledge. Also important is tradition and culture, since clearly there are broadly standardized  speech “formulas” / norms of good conduct, for how to appropriately perform these “functional language use” tasks, such as commiserating with a bereaved person, for example. The best way to master these everyday communicative functions (which is key to doing well in the exam, as well as in real life) is to practice with your expert tutor, doing simulations and role-playing.

Now please be aware that this blog post will, of necessity, have a somewhat weird look to it.  This is because we are now going to list (in abbreviated form, in English) the DELE functional language use tasks – doing so under the same headings as used in the original curriculum document.  Remember, this serves as an introduction, to give you a feel for the scope and nature of what is required (and, if you still labor under any illusion that the DELE’s curriculum is all about learning the rules of Spanish grammar and spelling, to disabuse you of that notion). For set 1, we will give some examples (as contained in the actual curriculum document) to illustrate what is meant under each function.

DELE Curriculum Level B: FUNCTIONAL LANGUAGE USEuntitled-design-39

 Set #1: Ask and give information:
  • identify; (example: ¿Quién es la hermana de Raquel?]
    -La (chica) morena que está hablando con Pablo. Who is Raquel’s sister? The brown-skinned girl talking to Paul);
  • ask for information (¿Sabes si / dónde / cómo…?  ¿Sabes cómo se hace la sopa de marisco? ¿Puedes / Podrías decirme si / dónde / cómo…?  Por favor, ¿puede decirme dónde está la estación?);
  • give information;
  • then request confirmation.
 Set #2: Express opinions:
  • ask an opinion;
  • give an opinion;
  • ask for valorisation;
  • offer valorisation;
  • express approval and disapproval;
  • position yourself in favor or against;
  • ask if your interlocutor is in agreement;
  • express agreement;
  • express disagreement;
  • demonstrate skepticism;
  • present a counter-argument;
  • express certainty and provide proof;
  • express lack of certainty and demand proof;
  • invite to formulate an hypothesis;
  • express possibility;
  • express obligation and necessity;
  • express lack of obligation and necessity;
  • ask about knowledge of something;
  • express knowledge of something;
  • express own lack of knowledge;
  • ask about the ability to do something;
  • express your ability to do something;
  • ask if interlocutor remembers or has forgotten;
  • express that you remember;
  • express that you have forgotten.
 Set #3: Express preferences, desires and wishes:
  • ask about tastes and interests;
  • express tastes and interests;
  • express aversion; ask about preferences;
  • express preferences;
  • express indifference or absence of preference;
  • ask about desires;
  • express a desire;
  • ask about plans and intentions;
  • express plans and intentions;
  • ask about state of mind;
  • express joy and satisfaction;
  • express sadness and sorrow;
  • express pleasure and happiness;
  • express boredom;
  • express satiety;
  • express anger and indignation;
  • express fear, anxiety and preoccupation;
  • express nervousness;
  • express empathy;
  • express relief;
  • express hope;
  • express deception;
  • express resignation;
  • express repentance;
  • express embarrassment;
  • express surprise and longing;
  • express admiration and pride;
  • express affection;
  • express physical sensations.
 Set $4: Influence the interlocutor:
  • give an order or instruction;
  • ask a favor;
  • ask for an object;
  • ask for help;
  • plead;
  • repeat an earlier order;
  • respond to an order,
  • petition;
  • ask permission;
  • give permission;
  • deny permission;
  • prohibit;
  • reject a prohibition;
  • propose and suggest;
  • offer and invite;
  • ask for confirmation of an earlier proposal;
  • accept a proposal,
  • offer a proposal;
  • reject a proposal,
  • offer an invitation;
  • counsel someone;
  • warn;
  • menace (only B2);
  • reproach;
  • promise and commit yourself;
  • offer to do something;
  • calm and console.
 Set #5: Relate socially:
  • greet;
  • return a greeting;
  • direct yourself at someone;
  • present yourself to someone;
  • respond to a presentation;
  • ask about the necessity for a presentation;
  • solicit to be presented;
  • welcome someone;
  • respond to a welcome;
  • excuse yourself;
  • respond to an excusing;
  • thank someone;
  • respond to thanks;
  • present your sympathies/condolences;
  • propose a toast;
  • congratulate;
  • express good wishes;
  • respond to congratulations and good wishes;
  • pass on greetings, wishes for better health;
  • respond to being wished;
  • take leave of.
 Set #6: Structure a discourse:
  • establish the communication or react to communication being established;
  • greet and respond to a greeting, ask about someone and respond to such a query;
  • ask for an extension and respond to such a request;
  • ask if you can leave a message;
  • ask how things are going, and respond;
  • request to start relating something and respond;
  • introduce the theme for relating something and react;
  • indicate that you are following the telling with interest;
  • attract the attention of the speaker;
  • introduce something into the conversation;
  • organize the information;
  • reformulate what was said;
  • highlight an element;
  • quote;
  • open a digression;
  • close a digression;
  • reject a theme or an aspect of the theme;
  • interrupt;
  • indicate that the conversation may be resumed;
  • ask of someone to keep quiet;
  • concede the floor to someone;
  • indicate that you wish to continue the discussion;
  • conclude a narration;
  • introduce a new theme;
  • propose closure;
  • accept closure;
  • reject closure and inject a new theme.

As promised, here is the link to this particular section in the original DELE B-level curriculum document:

http://cvc.cervantes.es/ensenanza/biblioteca_ele/plan_curricular/niveles/05_funciones_inventario_b1-b2.htm

For levels A and B, the respective links are:

http://cvc.cervantes.es/ensenanza/biblioteca_ele/plan_curricular/niveles/05_funciones_inventario_a1-a2.htm

http://cvc.cervantes.es/ensenanza/biblioteca_ele/plan_curricular/niveles/05_funciones_inventario_c1-c2.htm

I hope that this blog post has given you at least a feel for what this very, very important component of the DELE curriculum is all about.  Keep an eye on our blog; as indicated, we will be posting new segments in this series that will eventually cover all of the components of the curriculum.

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Please keep in mind our FREE OFFER of our 96-page Workbook #9.2 (DELE / SIELE exam orientation & acing tips) which you can have absolutely gratis and with no obligation, simply be sending us a request via our convenient contact form (just click on the image above). This unique free DELE / SIELE exam preparation book covers all aspects relating to the goals, format and curriculum of the DELE system, plus battle-tested tips for preparing yourself to ace the DELE exam.

Don’t miss out either on our other free offer, which is an exploratory one hour Skype session with myself, in English, explaining the intricacies of these exams and answering your questions – you can make use of these offers with no obligation on you to sign up for coaching.

Best of luck with your exam preparation!

Salu2

Willem

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TESTED ANSWERS to DELE / SIELE / OPI EXAM FAQs

TESTED ANSWERS to DELE / SIELE / OPI exam FAQs

This Blog post’s Objective: The DELE exam (and its online twin the SIELE, as well as the American equivalent the OPIc) is a very different animal to your typical school or college exam. This is true in terms of practically all its aspects – its goals, its format, curriculum content and assessment criteria / scoring.

Despite this, there unfortunately isn’t that much practical information available in English on the DELE / SIELE exams as such, especially as viewed from the student perspective.  What is available is mostly in high Spanish, written for academics by academics, with a didactic slant dealing with the likes of methodology and desired outcomes i.t.o. the Common European Language Policy Framework, the CEFR. (For the sake of convenience, I’m just going to refer to the DELE from this point on, and not to DELE / SIELE & OPI, since all three systems are founded on the same principles).

For someone who just wants to know what to expect when he/she walks into the exam center, and how best to pass this thing, there isn’t that much on offer. Especially not in English.  As author of this blog post, I am an English-speaker who actually did the DELE C2 exam before I became Director of Studies at DELEhelp (in an earlier life, I i.a. served as ambassador  for President Nelson Mandela and as head of the South African diplomatic academy). I am also the official coordinator of our local accredited SIELE exam center here in la Antigua Guatemala, as well as being an accredited proctor for the OPI tests. Having “been there, done it”, this blog post aims to give practical, battle-tested answers to DELE exam FAQs, culled from real-world experience.

DELE exam FAQS is principally about what you can DO not just know1.  What is the biggest difference between the DELE exam and your typical school or college Spanish language exam?

School mostly tests what you KNOW; the DELE tests what you can DO with your knowledge. The DELE and its sister exams of language proficiency do not ask theoretical questions – they test your actual, applied “communicative competency”. In other words, it grades your ability to COMPREHEND Spanish, both when listening and reading, and to EXPRESS yourself understandably in Spanish, both orally and in writing.

The DELE evaluates your actual ability to express yourself in real-world situations in Spanish, both in writing and orally. It evaluates  your “communicative competency” in terms of four main assessment criteria. These are:

  • how extensive is your linguistic scope (vocabulary and expressions);
  • how correct is your use of the language (grammar, knowing the right word / phrase / pattern of  the language, plus pronunciation in case of the oral, and spelling in case of writing);
  • how coherently are you conveying your message (structure and clarity of meaning); and
  • how fluently do you speak, or how well your writing conforms to the norms for the particular genre (formal / informal letters, journalistic articles etc.)

2.  What does the DELE curriculum consist of?

DELE exam FAQs the curriculum is more than just grammar

The first important point to understand, is that the DELE curriculum consists of much more than just grammar. In fact, grammar is but one of ten main subject fields covered in the curriculum.  Reading through the list, you will understand that some relate to knowledge, and others to communicative skill sets you need to perfect. It all comes back to the fact that the DELE tests what you can actually DO with the knowledge you are required to have.

The grammar curriculum is, of course, extensive and it is important for candidates to know what is required at their particular level. For example, the Subjunctive Mood is only included from level B up, not at Level A (for B1 it is only the Present Subjunctive, while for B2 three further tenses of the subjunctive are added:  Pretérito Imperfecto,  Pretérito Perfecto and the Pretérito Plusquamperfecto).

Other key curriculum components are:

  • PRONUNCIATION
  • SPELLING
  • FUNCTIONAL LANGUAGE USE (abilities such as to ask and give directions, expressing an opinion, to prohibit something, to convey condolences etc. – at level B, for example, there are more than 130 such specific functional usages or “can do” statements listed as required competencies);
  • TACTICS and PRAGMATIC STRATEGIES (construction and interpretation of a discourse, managing modalities such as shifting time-frame, giving focus, upping intensity etc., as well as managing interactive conduct, such as showing and valuing courtesy);
  • GENRES of DISCOURSE and TEXTUAL PRODUCTS (genres of written and oral expression, such as different types of letters, essays, articles, text and e-mail messages, or face-to-face conversation, by telephone, telling a joke, presentations at conferences etc. – for level B2 alone, there are almost 40 such specific genres listed);
  • GENERALIZED and SPECIFIC NOTIONS (managing the expression of notions, which may be generalized, such as of an existential, quantitative, temporal, qualitative, or evaluative nature, or may be specific, such as of personal identity, work, leisure etc.);
  • CULTURAL REFERENCES (general knowledge of the Hispanic countries, their geography, economy and history, politics, religious beliefs etc.);
  • SOCIO-CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE AND BEHAVIOR (background knowledge of Hispanic traditions and customs in the home, the family context, the work-place, school, at leisure etc.) and
  • INTERCULTURAL DEXTERITY (identifying personal perceptions about different cultures and recognition of diversity, plus attitudes towards assimilation of cultures, mediation and interaction).

No language exists in a vacuum. All these topics are important to the socio-cultural situational awareness and communicative skill sets that candidates need in order to be able to express themselves well, and also to do well in the reading and listening comprehension tasks of the exam – but going beyond the exam, to meet the everyday challenges of communicating in real life.

To fully understand the logic behind this extensive curriculum, one needs to comprehend the GOALS or desired OUTCOMES that the DELE system is aimed at. It wants you to be able to function in a real-world Hispanic setting. It’s starting point is the student as “actor in a socio-economic setting”  who needs to communicate. The curriculum therefore covers the essential knowledge and skill sets that one need to possess in order to be able to perform the everyday, real-world communicative tasks you will encounter at your level.  These relate to transacting everyday business ranging from shopping or booking into a hotel to advanced professional transactions at Level C, plus participating in social interactions and producing oral and written presentations – in the case of each DELE level, on subjects related to that particular level’s prescribed scope of outcomes. For more details on the curriculum, see our detailed Blog post on the subject:

For effective DELE / SIELE / OPI exam prep, know the curriculum

PLEASE NOTE: At DELEhelp we have prepared an in-house workbook of some 96 pages, dealing with the DELE’s goals and curriculum as well as with the scoring criteria applied in the exam. This e-workbook is available to you, our readers – completely free and without any obligation – by simply sending me your e-mail address via our convenient contact information form: just click on the image at the bottom of this page.

3.  What is the first thing to do, when starting to prepare for the DELE exam?

DELE exam FAQs first thing to do is get a study plan

If you don’t want to be shooting blindly in the dark, you need a STUDY PLAN.

Your DELE exam study plan needs to start with an inventory of what knowledge and skill sets you will need to perfect for your level, essentially as culled from the curriculum. Against this you have to then check off your existing knowledge and skills.  Where you fall short, that shortfall will need to be the content of your study plan (for example: good pronunciation is clearly an important element, but it may just be that you grew up with Hispanic neighbors and so you have excellent pronunciation, which means that in your case this won’t need to feature in your study plan; on the other hand, you may never have had experience in writing in Spanish, so spelling and knowledge of the different formats or genres of writing will clearly be part of your necessary study content).

Once you’ve determined the required knowledge and skills you still lack, you have to match it against your available time and the resources you will need. These four legs (knowledge you lack, skills you need to perfect, time available and resources required) inform your study plan. Integrating them will give you a practical program that should work for you.

Because the DELE is not a theoretical exam, but one of practical application of communicative skills, it is vital that your current knowledge and skills level be correctly determined by means of an expert diagnostic test at the very outset, and that have available the resources (identified for you by an expert tutor) that you will need to hone your skills.

Properly planned, expertly guided self-study (i.e., learning activity such as studying lexis, and exam-simulating practice, such as of writing) is clearly the key to success, and probably two-thirds of your available time should be dedicated to that.

However, it should be evident that there are aspects tested in these exams that you cannot easily prepare for on your own, just by yourself. First there’s the issue of getting a correct initial (and ongoing) diagnostic test done of your strengths and weaknesses, to help inform your study plan and to keep you on track. Secondly, practicing your written expression skills require interaction with someone qualified. You need expert feed-back and guidance. Most importantly, though, is the ORAL – you can stand in front of the mirror and converse with yourself (and even your Spanish-speaking pals will not be simulating exam situations and giving you expert feed-back). For these elements, but especially the vital oral practice, it is essential to have an experienced DELE exam tutor, 1-on-1, as your key resource, who can give you expert and personal attention. With modern technology such as Skype, you can now benefit from such personalized, expert 1-on-1 tuition in the comfort of your own home, at unbeatable rates.  (At DELEhelp, we charge only US$12 per hour, all inclusive).

Our DELEhelp Blog has a detailed post that specifically deals with how to develop a study plan – to go to it, simply click on this cover:

Click on image to go to blog post

4.  What’s the best general preparation for the DELE exam?

DELE exam FAQs the best prep is to expand your lexis

This is one of the most common DELE exam FAQs. There are two key things that you need to be doing, if you want to be at your best for the exam. The one is to expand your “linguistic scope” as it’s called in the DELE exam scoring criteria. This means expanding your knowledge of Spanish lexis (vocabulary and phrases / expressions). The more words and word chunks you know, the better you will be able to express yourself and the easier you will comprehend what you hear and read.

We have published a DELEhelp blogpost that deals specifically with the importance of vocabulary and how to best expand yours – simply click HERE.

The second is to do as many mock DELE exams as possible. One of the best resources for this, is the ModeloExamen DELE e-books written by our DELEhelp review board member, Prof. David Giménez Folqués of the Spanish department at the University of Valencia, Spain. David has been on the DELE panel since 2006. His books are conveniently downloadable (thus immediately available), and are also very affordable. To access them, click HERE.

5.  What should one be aware of, when registering for the exam?
DELE exam FAQs check out exam center availability

First thing to diarise, would be the exam dates and the deadline dates for registering. There are usually five exam sittings per year, In April, May, July, October and November.  The registrations usually close some five weeks before the relevant exam date. (The SIELE and the OPI can be booked for practically any day of the year, typically at a few days’ notice).

The second thing to check out, would be where your closest exam centers are located. Very important – check whether your particular level of the exam will be offered by the DELE center that you are interested in, on the date you wish to sit it: NOT ALL DELE CENTERS OFFER ALL LEVELS ON ALL DATES. (Once registered, you may NOT change exam centers).

When registering, you obviously need to have your personal photo identification documentation to hand.

The registration fees vary per country and for level of exam taken, but is by no means exorbitant (at exam centers in the USA it will usually range between US$105 for A1 to US$180 for C2).

6.  What should one look out for, in the days immediately leading up to the exam?

DELE xeam FAQs things to do week before

It is a very good idea to visit your exam center in the week ahead of the exam, if just to orientate yourself – especially if it is your first exam.

Speak with the administrators at the DELE exam center about the scheduling of your oral exam session.  Depending on the numbers involved, they may be offering these on the day before the written exam; if you can do the oral on a different day to the written it will help you, because the written exam is intellectually exhausting and doing the oral the same afternoon is no joke.

Ask whether the listening comprehension test will be taken in a communal hall with the audio coming over loudspeakers, or whether each candidate will have their own audio booth with headphones; if you are hearing challenged, you need to point this out in advance – especially if you are told that your particular level’s listening comprehension will be offered in a communal setting, playing over a public address system.

7.  What are the most unexpected practical complications one can encounter, on exam day?

DELE exam FAQs get your writing fingers fit

Some aspects of the DELE experience are not so self-evident and may thus not typically feature among DELE exam FAQs, but are equally important in practice. One of the biggest problems I encountered in preparing for my own  C2, was the painful reality that my fingers had lost the ability to write at length & exam-fast in long-hand. In this age of the keyboard, you have to start practicing well in advance to write long-hand again – to ensure that you can do so speedily yet legibly and, especially, to get your fingers fit again.

Another aspect of writing by hand is that you have to get used to how many words a typical page of your handwriting comes to – the written tasks require that you write a certain number of words for each, and if you have to sit and count each word you wrote in the exam room, you are going to be wasting valuable time.

Time is indeed of the essence in the exam. The time allowed per task is very tight – for example, there’s no way that you will be able to write out a full rough draft of your written expression tasks and then neatly re-write the whole thing. In the oral, it is also important to be able to time yourself so that you can present a coherent, structured argument with intro, body and conclusion in the allotted time. It is therefore essential to bring an old-style watch, since you won’t be allowed to use your smartphone.

8.  How is the DELE oral exam set up?

The oral expression tasks are the one part of the DELE exam that’s examined and scored right there at the exam center, by qualified examiners certified for this purpose (the written portions of the exam are sent to Spain for marking).  The oral scoring is done by two examiners. One acts as the interviewer, and does a holistic assessment. The second examiner sits out of line of sight of the candidate (usually behind) and does a detailed assessment with the aid of what is called the analytical scale.

The oral tasks for all levels starts with a monologue (i.e., a formal presentation), for which the candidate is given time to prepare.  Thereafter, the subsequent oral tasks become dialogues between the candidate and the interviewer, simulating real-world situations.

The oral exam paper explains very clearly what needs to be done, and gives the candidate a lot of guidance regarding what to expect and do – for that reason, it is very important to read the exam paper with utmost care, and ensure that you cover all the aspects required in your presentation.

In the case of the SIELE Oral (S4) and the OPIc (the Oral Proficiency Interview by Computer) the candidate does not speak to a live human interviewer, but to a computer avatar that you see on-screen, since these two exams are done on-line. The principles regarding assessment etc. do, however, remain essentially the same.

 

9.  What are the oral exam interviewers like?DELE exam FAQs oral isn't the Spanish Inquisition

The DELE oral exam is not a modern-day version of the Spanish inquisition. The interviewer is trained to be friendly and facilitating. He or she will at the outset try to put the candidate at ease with an icebreaker conversation (which doesn’t count towards your score). The oral tasks resemble everyday transactions, with the objective of seeing if you can effectively manage them (for example, simulating a conversation where the candidate supposedly is trying to return a defective item to a shop). The DELE orals do not resemble a college oral exam where you are typically asked academic questions with the objective to test your subject knowledge.  The DELE oral primarily tests your practical skill at communicating fluently, coherently and correctly in Spanish.

As in any communicative setting, it is very important to really engage with your interviewer – sit forward, keep eye contact, and remember to smile.

The SIELE/OPIc oral tests have the advantage of using standardized interaction that eliminates the sometimes problematic human factor (although it may at first sound weird to have to speak with a computer avatar, that voice is well modulated and speaks very clearly, and there is no human subjectivity that could skew things). Therefore, a majority of students find it psychologically easier to handle the SIELE/OPIc orals than the live interview of the DELE.

To view our blog post on acing the DELE oral exam, click on the image:

Click on image to go to blog post

10.  Can I make & use notes in the oral exam?

This is another one of the DELE exam FAQs that we commonly get asked. Yes, you may (and absolutely should) make bullet-point notes and prepare a scheme of presentation with a proper structure, so that you can COHERENTLY and FLUENTLY present your argument with a proper intro, a body of proof and a persuasive conclusion. You don’t need to hide these notes during the presentation – it’s fine to have it on the table, as long as you don’t lose eye contact (and thus engagement) with the interviewer by looking down at your notes too much.

What you may not do, is read your notes verbatim.

It’s also a good idea to jot down a list of pre-memorized link phrases (such as: entonces, por eso / por lo tanto / por consiguiente, todavía, mientras, aúnque etc.)  as part of your notes, so that you can be reminded to use them and can easily prompt yourself to do so.  This will help limit the “uhm – ahm” pauses that destroy fluency, as well as give you time to think.

11.  What comes out as most significant in DELE examiner comments on the oral and written expression sessions?

Reviewing examiners’ comments on candidates’ written and oral expression tasks, it is clear that their main concern is the extent to which the candidate communicated effectively.  Small grammatical errors, for example, that don’t interfere with the efficiency with which the candidate is conveying meaning, will not be penalized.  This approach is borne out by the fact that “correctness” (of grammar, spelling, pronunciation etc.) is just one of the four scoring criteria – the others being coherence, linguistic scope and spoken fluency/conformity to written genre. However, if pronunciation or grammar is so poor that meaning cannot be clearly ascertained, then of course the desired communicative outcome cannot be achieved and the candidate will be penalized.

For fluency and coherence, effective structuring of discourse is emphasized, as well as the use of link phrases between thoughts / sentences, to avoid staccato, disjointed presentation (the use of link phrases is mentioned particularly frequently in examiner comments, especially at the lower levels).

An ample linguistic scope (i.e., lexis) is also critically important – if you don’t know the right word or phrase, you won’t be fluent, nor correct or coherent, apart from obviously scoring poorly on the “linguistic scope” criteria as such.  Vocabulary is thus the one issue that impacts each of the four scoring criteria, which makes it a key area for your attention.

In real life as well, if you make a grammatical mistake, your reader or listener usually can compensate mentally for your error and still follow your meaning (such as with wrong gender agreement, for example). If, however, you don’t know the right word or cannot intelligibly pronounce it, your interlocutor cannot really mentally compensate. He or she will likely end up at a loss to understand you, and thus the conveyance of meaning will have collapsed – which in the DELE exam will of course be seriously penalized.

As regards “correctness”, it is therefore first and foremost a question of the correct word or phrase, correctly pronounced (or spelled). Repeated grammatical mistakes that show a lack of command of the basics will also negatively impact your score on this criterion; the most frequently mentioned such niggles are errors in agreement of gender and number, and incorrect use of ser / estar and of por / para.

12.  How long does it take to receive the exam results? The actual diploma?

The DELE marking process takes about three months on average.  The results are published on the Instituto Cervantes website, for which you need to fill in your exam registration number and birth date in order to access yours (so remember to keep your registration number).  The actual diploma takes a couple of months more to reach the successful candidates, since it needs to be signed by some important officials. This is what the actual diploma looks like:

DELE C2 diploma example

This is what the DELE Diploma looks like.

The beauty of the SIELE and the OPI is that their results typically are available within 72 hours, with an immediately-downloadable certificate.

The DELE diploma is valid for life, the SIELE for five years and the OPI certificate for two years.

13.  Do the DELE exam administrators sometimes make mistakes with the marks or with the diplomas?

The examiners and administrators are human, so mistakes do sometimes occur. The DELE system makes provision for a formal review process. This usually applies to candidates feeling hard done by in the scoring of the expression tasks (where human examiners award marks).  Mistakes can, however, also occur in relation to the comprehension tasks – not that the computer had made a mistake in scoring these multiple choice papers, but that the human who must transfer the computer’s score to the candidate’s overall results sheet slipped up. At DELEhelp we actually had such an experience recently. One of our brightest students passed the expression tasks with flying colors, but then inexplicably “failed” the comprehension tasks quite miserably – supposedly obtaining the exact same point for both the listening and the reading comprehension. When we helped the candidate to formally query this, it transpired that the actual marks had been wrongly transferred; this was immediately rectified and our 100% success record with our candidates at DELEhelp was thus duly restored.

I also know first-hand that whole sets of diplomas can get “lost” through being inadvertently sent to the wrong exam center – those for Antigua Guatemala, for example, not so long ago ended up somewhere in Brazil, and took months to find their way to where they needed to go.

In other words, if you feel that something may have gone wrong with your exam results, don’t hesitate to query it (through the right channels, of course).

CONCLUSION: So, there you have some battle-tested answers to DELE exam FAQs we commonly receive.  We would like to keep this blog post updated and also expand this list of DELE / SIELE & OPI exam FAQs, so please send us your questions so that we can answer and include them.

click on image to ask for free workbook

Good luck with your exam preparation, and remember to ask for our free 96-page Workbook #9.2: “DELE / SIELE Exam Orientation and Acing Tips”.  This one-of-a-kind free DELE / SIELE exam preparation book covers all aspects relating to the goals, format and curriculum of the DELE / SIELE system, plus battle-tested tips for preparing yourself to ace the DELE /  SIELE exam. Just click on the image above, to ask for it. (If you want our OPI exam prep Workbook #8, we’ll gladly send you that free, too).

You are also entitled to a free one-hour Skype exploratory session with us, with absolutely no obligation.

Salu2

Willem

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